Artillery, Cavalry, Infantry Regimental Histories
|Arizona Guards of Pinos Altos mining camp, Arizona territorial militia company|
|Minute Men of Pinos Altos mining camp, Arizona Territorial militia company|
|Arizona Scout Company|
|Herbert's Battalion, Arizona Cavalry|
Confederate Arizona was a territory claimed
by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861
and 1865. It consisted of the portion of the New Mexico Territory south of the
34th parallel north including parts of the modern states of New Mexico and
Arizona. Its capital was Mesilla along the southern border. The Confederate
territory overlapped the Arizona Territory created by the Union government in
1863, but the physical geography differed in that the Confederate Arizona
Territory was approximately the southern half of the pre-existing New Mexico
Territory, while the Union Arizona Territory was approximately the western half
of what had been New Mexico Territory.
The territory was officially declared on August 1, 1861, following the Confederate victory at the Battle of Mesilla. Confederate hold in the area was soon broken, however, after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, the defining battle of the New Mexico Campaign. In July 1862, the government of the Confederate Territory of Arizona relocated to El Paso, Texas, then withdrew with the approach of Union troops to eastern Texas where it remained for the duration of the war. The territory continued to be represented in the Confederate Congress and Confederate troops continued to fight under the Arizona banner until the war's end.
At the beginning of the Civil War the southern part of New Mexico Territory joined the Confederacy. Two militia companies organized under the Confederate territorial government. Its Governor, Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor, later gathered soldiers in his own regiments to form an Arizona Ranger Company, one of three planned. Only one, Company A, Arizona Rangers was formed before the Confederacy lost control of the territory in 1862. All these units were then formed into Herbert's Battalion of Arizona Cavalry. They went on to fight together in this unit until May 1863 when the Arizona Battalion had been reduced by losses and it was broken up. Company A still had enough men to continue as a viable company, and was kept in being but renamed as the independent Arizona Scout Company. The other two companies of the Battalion were disbanded and the men consolidated with those of Company A to form the Arizona Scout Company that fought until the end of the war.