Organized and mustered into state service in April 1861. Re-enlisted for Confederate service effective December 1, 1861. Assigned to support Hebert's Brigade of McCulloch's Division in northwest Arkansas in December, 1861. Fought at Leetown and Pea Ridge on March 7-8, 1862. Returned to camp near Van Buren, Arkansas after Pea Ridge, and then moved with the Army of the West to Corinth, Mississippi in April, 1862. Reorganized at Corinth on May 16, 1862 as a result of the Confederate Conscription Act, and assigned to support of Roane's (later Phifer's) Brigade of Maury's Division, Army of the West, serving in northeast Mississippi. Fought at the battle of Corinth on October 3-4, 1862, and at the Hatchie Bridge crossing on October 7. Served as an unattached battery of Maury's (later Forney's) Division in north central Mississippi from Novemer, 1862 to April of 1863, fighting in an engagement at Oakland, MS on December 3. Assigned to support of Shoup's Brigade, Martin Smith's Division, where it served during the Vicksburg Campaign and in the defenses of Vicksburg during the siege. Surendered with the Vicksburg garrison on July 4, 1863, and was paroled there later the same month. One section (two guns) was reorganized to serve in eastern Louisianain November, 1863 using two 3-inch ordnance rifles. This section served with Cosby's Brigade, Jackson's Division, of Lee's Cavalry Corps. The battery was reorganized in Arkansas using four 6-pounder smoothbores around September, 1864, and served in Blocher's 5th Light Artillery Battalion, supporting Churchill's 1st Arkansas Division, and served with this Division until the end of the war. Renamed as the "1st Arkansas Field Battery" effective November 1, 1864. Surrendered with General Kirby Smith on May 26, 1865.
Officers: Cpt. James J. Gaines ; Cpt. Francis McAnally; Lt. Frank A. Moore; Lt. David W. Hudgens, 2nd Lt. John P. Murphy.
Also Known As: 1st Arkansas Artillery Battery; Gaines' Battery; McAnally's Battry