Organized as a mounted rifles unit in the late summer of 1864 from some of the men who had returned to Arkansas after surrendering at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, under the command of Colonel W.O. Coleman. During the summer of 1864, the 46th served in eastern Arkansas with Colonel Archibald Dobbins, and participated in the attack on Lamb's Plantation near Helena in August. Subsequently served in an unattached status with Shelby's Cavalry Division, where they participated in Price's Missouri Raid in September and October of 1864, and at the battle of Mine Creek on October 25, 1864. Returned to service in northeastern Arkansas after the Raid, where they remained until the end of the war, raiding Federal supply lines and operating as guerillas. Surrendered with BG M. Jeff Thompson near Chalk Bluff on May 11, 1865.