Chesterfield Light Artillery was organized and mustered into Confederate service in November, 1861, at Columbia, South Carolina. Most of the officers and men were raised in Chesterfield County. After serving in the Columbia area, the unit moved to Virginia, then North Carolina, then returned to Virginia. It lost 1 killed and 6 wounded at Deserted House, served at Battery Huger, and in May, 1863, contained 3 officers and 115 men. Later it was assigned to J.C. Coit's Battalion of Artillery, was active in North Carolina, fought on Swift Creek and at Drewry's Bluff, and participated in the defense of Petersburg on June 16-17, 1864. The unit continued the fight in the Petersburg trenches and during April, 1865, was being reorganized and refitted when the Confederate forces surrendered. Its commanders were Captains James C. Coit and James I. Kelly.
On December 26, 1864, one section had two 12-lb. Napoleons, and the other two sections were armed with two 120lb. Napoleons and two 12-lb. Howitzers. It was surrendered by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston at Durham Station, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.