35th Cavalry (Likens' Regiment)

Roster
(Surnames)
(Incomplete)

35th (Likens') Cavalry Regiment was organized in October, 1863, by consolidating Likens' and Burns' Texas Cavalry Battalions. Many of the men were from Jefferson, Hopkins, Upshur, and Smith counties. The unit served in H. Bee's and Bagby's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and participated in various conflicts in Louisiana including the engagements at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. Early in 1865 it moved to Beaumont, Texas, and remained there until the end of the war. The regiment was included in the surrender in June. Its commanders were Colonel James B. Likens, Lieutenant Colonel James R. Burns, and Major William A. Wortham.

(The following was sent to me via e-mail from John Stevens)

Likens 35th Texas Cavalry was one of the last CSA units organized in Texas two and a half years into the War Between the States. After the fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson in July 1863, a Federal invasion of Texas appeared imminent. Many Texas units were serving east of the Mississippi or in Arkansas. Every man who could possibly shoulder a rifle was called upon to protect their state, their homes, and their families. In June 1863, James B. Likens was given permission to organize a regiment. The 35thTexas Cavalry was the result.

The roster found on internet searches is compiled from the National Archives & Records Administration (NARA) service records. The names included are 48 officers and about 150 enlisted men. The names of the enlisted men came from the only known report by Col Likens made in late December 1863. This report listed the men who were NOT present, but on furlough, special assignments, sick, or AWOL. None of the men present were recorded. When the regiment was officially organized and inspected in November 1863, there were a total of 748 men and officers present. A roster has been compiled after years of extensive research which totals 467 of these veterans. Each man’s service and in some cases non-service, has been documented from all known sources.

Until recent years, very little has been known regarding the men and service of Likens’ Regiment. Most historians have relegated the regiment to a minor or insignificant role in history. This oversight was mostly due to the lack of information and documented records which can be found at the NARA or War of the Rebellion Official Records (OR’s). A deeper study finds the men and the role they played in the events during the last twenty months of the Civil War in the Trans-Mississippi Department was anything but insignificant. While in no epic battles, they suffered the same hardships of every other soldier. Extreme weather with inadequate camp equipment or protective clothing. Meager rations not only monotonous, but also lacking in nutritional value. Arms were mostly older models and short range. Disease and sickness decimated their ranks. Serving mostly along the Gulf Coast and the swamps of Louisiana often left them with dysentery from drinking stagnant water and malaria from the mosquitoes. They were seldom paid, their horses were jaded from overuse and lack of forage, and their families suffered just as much back home as any other soldier in the Confederacy.

In late October 1863, three companies from central Texas known as Burns Battalion and Likens Battalion of five companies from east Texas were ordered to Camp Lubbock near Houston to consolidate into Likens’ new 35thregiment. In addition, three companies for Terrell’s 37th Texas Cavalry were transferred to Likens. Two companies were merged so the final 35thorganization consisted of ten companies.

Only days after being organized, rumors of a Federal invasion on the Gulf Coast prompted the high command to order Likens Regiment, with little training and poorly armed, to force march to the mouth of the Brazos River. The rumors proved false, but in a few weeks and during a bitter winter, five companies of the regiment were ordered to assist in scouting activities on Matagorda Peninsula and man the defenses being built at the mouth of Caney Creek. The remainder of the regiment performed picket duty on the mainland side of Matagorda Bay. In February the entire regiment is camped on the Lavaca River near Texas as deterrent to Federal foraging parties along the Gulf coast. Their duty in and around Lavaca Bay was to keep an eye on Union forces occupying Indianola, prevent raids on local ranches and farms, and raise the alarm if a move farther inland was detected. In March, the regiment was assigned to General Hamilton P. Bee’s Division of Cavalry. The much reduced regiment was order to force march350 miles to Louisiana and assist General Richard Taylor efforts to repel a Federal invasion, better known as the Red River Campaign.

After soundly being defeated at the Battle of Mansfield on May 8, 1863 and a tactical draw the next day at the Battle of Pleasant Hill, the 25,000 man army of General Nathaniel Banks and a 100 boat flotilla of Admiral David Porter’s gunboats, transports, and support craft began a retreat back to the Mississippi River. Although Likens’ Regiment was not at the two main battles as a unit, there are indications some lead elements may have participated. Once the main body of the 35tharrived, they took an active part in almost daily skirmishes for the next six weeks. Outnumbered 5 to 1, General Taylor’s small army of mostly cavalry made every effort to impede, surround, block, defeat, and/or capture the superior force. The 35th not only kept pressure on the army, but also attacked gunboats and transports on the river. After the final battle of the campaign at Yellow Bayou, Banks’ army and Porter’s fleet finally escaped. The 35th was assigned picket along duty the Atchafalaya River. They participated in raids and were involved in several skirmishes until sent back to Hempstead, Texas in February 1865. The regiment was dismounted and by May of 1865, while stationed in Galveston, only 165 men and 15 officers were present for duty. In late May, they were disbanded and sent home.

 

ORGANIZATION

An Inspection Report shows the 35th Regiment was assembled from Likens' and Burns' Battalions, & three companies transferred from Terrell's Regiment.  The following are the names of the original captains, the assigned company letter after it was organized, and the total enlisted men based on the inspection report of November 23, 1863:

Captains of Likens' Battalion:

W. W. Dawson - Company C - 34 present, 8 on leave, 36 AWOL

G. E. Warren – Company G - 54 present, 12 on leave, 0 AWOL

H. B. Ransom – Company B - 52 present, 12 on leave, 4 AWOL

G. W. Bates – Company H - 41 present, 14 on leave, 6 AWOL

J. T. Wiggins – Company F - 28 present, 20 on leave, 2 AWOL                           

Captains of Burns' Battalion:

G. L. Hickey – Company E - 46 present, 7 on leave, 9 AWOL

T. N. George – merged & became A. B. Boren’s Company K - 51 present, 7 on leave, 4 AWOL

J. N. Black – Company A - 26 present, 0 on leave, 0 AWOL

Captains Transferred from Terrell's Regiment

W. C. Hurley – merged & became A. B. Boren’s Company K - 33 present, 2 on leave, 0 AWOL

J. E. Gray – Company D - 54 present, 16 on leave, 2 AWOL

W. H. Mullins – Company I - 43 present, 11 on leave, 16 AWOL

Total of 512 enlisted men present, 109 on leave, 79 AWOL

 

In addition to the enlisted men, there are 48 officers and staff recorded for a roster total of 748 men and officers who had enlisted in Likens’ Regiment.  Most likely, the regiment never grew any larger after November 1863.  Disease, sickness, casualties, and desertions had taken their toll. 

COUNTY of EACH COMPANY ORIGIN

The Home County of each Company is based on the home of the Captain and/or the most men in the company. 

A - Leon

B - Rusk

C - Hopkins

D - Washington

E - Robertson

F - Cherokee

G -Upshur

H - Smith

I - Cherokee

K – Robertson / Van Zandt

REFERENCES

1.      National Archives microfilm series M323, Roll 171

2.      "Civil War Records of Cherokee Co", Tx., Volume I and II by Ogreta W. Huttash

3.      "Reminiscences of the Boys in Gray" by Mamie Yeary

4.      Pension applications at the Texas State Archives in Austin, Texas. (also available online @ Ancestry.com)

5.      "Terrell's TxCav, Appendix IV" by John Spencer

6.      "Civil War Letters of Louis Lehman" by Edmund Louis Burnett

7.      "www.Fold3.com" of NARA Confederate Service Records.

8.      Ashbel Smith Papers @ UT Briscoe Center for American History

9.      "Tabulated record of enlisted men absent from the Regiment" found @ NARA.

10.   United Confederate Veteran Rosters @ LSU Hill Memorial Library in Baton Rouge, La.

11.   Upshur County, Texas Confederate Veterans" by Carolyn E. Sowell

12.   "Confederate Home Roster" by Katheryn Davis, Linda Devereaux, Carolyn Ericson

13.   "Houston County in the Civil War" by Thomas Mainer

14.   "Rusk County Rebs" by Kathryn Davis & Carolyn Ericson

15.   "Hill County (Texas) Trilogy" by Col. Harold B. Simpson

16.   "Titus & Franklin Counties in the Civil War"

17.   "Greg & Upshur Counties in the Civil War" by Bonnie & Carolyn Ericson

18.   "Angelina County Texas in the Civil War" by Kathryn Davis & Carolyn Ericson

19.   "Cherokee Co, Tx in the Civil War" by Linda Devereaux& Kathryn Davis.

20.   "The People of Nacogdoches County in the Civil War" by Carolyn Ericson

21.   "Honoring Our Confederate Dead of Robertson Co, Tx" by Monica Hague

22.   "Civil War Shadows In Hopkins County, Texas" by June E. Tuck

REFERENCES

1.      National Archives microfilm series M323, Roll 171

2.      "Civil War Records of Cherokee Co", Tx., Volume I and II by Ogreta W. Huttash

3.      "Reminiscences of the Boys in Gray" by Mamie Yeary

4.      Pension applications at the Texas State Archives in Austin, Texas. (also available online @ Ancestry.com)

5.      "Terrell's TxCav, Appendix IV" by John Spencer

6.      "Civil War Letters of Louis Lehman" by Edmund Louis Burnett

7.      "www.Fold3.com" of NARA Confederate Service Records.

8.      Ashbel Smith Papers @ UT Briscoe Center for American History

9.      "Tabulated record of enlisted men absent from the Regiment" found @ NARA.

10.   United Confederate Veteran Rosters @ LSU Hill Memorial Library in Baton Rouge, La.

11.   Upshur County, Texas Confederate Veterans" by Carolyn E. Sowell

12.   "Confederate Home Roster" by Katheryn Davis, Linda Devereaux, Carolyn Ericson

13.   "Houston County in the Civil War" by Thomas Mainer

14.   "Rusk County Rebs" by Kathryn Davis & Carolyn Ericson

15.   "Hill County (Texas) Trilogy" by Col. Harold B. Simpson

16.   "Titus & Franklin Counties in the Civil War"

17.   "Greg & Upshur Counties in the Civil War" by Bonnie & Carolyn Ericson

18.   "Angelina County Texas in the Civil War" by Kathryn Davis & Carolyn Ericson

19.   "Cherokee Co, Tx in the Civil War" by Linda Devereaux& Kathryn Davis.

20.   "The People of Nacogdoches County in the Civil War" by Carolyn Ericson

21.   "Honoring Our Confederate Dead of Robertson Co, Tx" by Monica Hague

22.   "Civil War Shadows In Hopkins County, Texas" by June E. Tuck

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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