Other Names: Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, Freemans Ford
Location: Culpeper County and Fauquier County
Campaign: Northern Virginia Campaign (June-September 1862)
Date(s): August 22-25, 1862
Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Pope [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]
Forces Engaged: Brigades
Estimated Casualties: 225 total
Description: Early August, Lee determined that McClellans army was being withdrawn from the Peninsula to reinforce John Pope. He sent Longstreet from Richmond to join Jacksons wing of the army near Gordonsville and arrived to take command himself on August 15. August 20-21, Pope withdrew to the line of the Rappahannock River. On August 23, Stuarts cavalry made a daring raid on Popes headquarters at Catlett Station, showing that the Union right flank was vulnerable to a turning movement. Over the next several days, August 22-25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River, including Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freemans Ford, and Sulphur Springs, resulting in a few hundred casualties. Together, these skirmishes primed Popes army along the river, while Jacksons wing marched via Thoroughfare Gap to capture Bristoe Station and destroy Federal supplies at Manassas Junction, far in the rear of Popes army.