Thirteen companies of Massachusetts militia were called out and mustered into the United States service during April and May, 1864, to do guard and garrison duty at forts and military posts on or near the eastern coast of the State for the period of ninety days. Eight of these companies had been raised and organized as units of the Independent
Division of Militia, a home guard division, authorized by Chapter 243 of the Acts of 1863, while the remaining five, as the schedule below will show, were detached from already existing regiments of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. A complete list of these ninety day companies, with the number, origin, name of commanding officer, and station of each is here given.
|1st Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. Lewis J. Bird, Fort Independence|
|2d Co. E, 8th Regt., M.V.M.||Capt. Francis E. Porter, Gloucester|
|3d Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. Luther Dame, Ft. Pickering, Salem|
|4th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. Alpheus J. Hillbourn, Clark's Point, New Bedford|
|5th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. David H. Dyer, Beach-Street Barracks, Boston|
|6th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. Charles P. Winslow, Camp Meigs, Readville|
|7th Co. G, 42d Regt., M.V.M.||Capt. Albert E. Proctor, Galloup's Island|
|8th Co. I, 6th Regt., M.V.M.||Capt. Augustine L. Hamilton, Galloup's Island.|
|9th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. George H. Smith, Galloup's Island.|
|10th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. George A. Perry, Fort Warren.|
|11th Co. I. 8th Regt., M.V.M.||Capt. Jeremiah C. Bacheller, Gloucester.|
|12th Co. of Infantry, I.D.M.||Capt. Charles F. Walcott, Provincetown.|
|13th Co. A. 50th Regt., M.V.M.||Capt. Robert W. Reeves, Clark's Point, Gloucester.|
These companies were mustered out of the service in August, 1864, and their stations occupied in many cases by unattached companies recruited for one hundred days.
1st Unattached Company Infantry
One Hundred Days
Nine companies of Massachusetts militia were recruited up to the minimum standard and mustered into the United States service in July and August, 1864, for one hundred days, to take the places of the ninety days companies whose terms of enlistment were to expire in August. Six of these companies had for their nuclei companies belonging to existing regiments of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, one, the 21st, was a unit of the Independent Division of Militia, while two, the 16th and 19th, were new companies.
The 16th was raised largely in East Boston by John F. Croft, under Special Order No. 694, dated July 8, 1864, and the 19th was raised in Milford and vicinity by Dixwell H. Clark, under Special Order No. 713, dated July 12, 1864.
A list of these companies, with the number, origin, name of commanding officer, and station of each, appears below.
|2d Co. E, 8th Regt. M. V. M. Capt. Francis E. Porter, Gloucester.|
|15th Co. E, 3d Regt. M. V. M. Capt. Isaac A. Jennings, Fort Warren.|
|16th New Company Capt. John F. Croft, Galloup's Island.|
|17th Co. K, 7th Regt. M. V. M. Capt. John G. Barnes, Fort Pickering, Salem.|
|18th Co. H, 3d Regt. M. V. M. Capt. Otis A. Baker, Galloup's Island.|
|19th New Company Capt. James M. Mason, Fort Warren.|
|20th Co. E, 4th Regt. M. V. M. Capt. Lewis Soule, Fort Sewall, Marblehead.|
|21st Co. of Infantry I. D. M. Capt. David H. Dyer, Provincetown.|
|22d Co. A, 3d Regt. M. V. M. Capt. John W. Marble, Camp Meigs, Readville.|
|23d Co. I, 3d Regt. M. V. M. Capt. Jabez M. Lyle, Camp Meigs, Readville.|
These one hundred days companies were mustered out in November, 1864, and their places taken in most cases by unattached companies enlisted for one year.
When the terms of service of the one
hundred days companies were drawing to a close General Order No. 40 was issued
from the Adjutant General's office, dated October 21, 1864, the following being
the text of the order :
" Commanding Officers of Companies of One Hundred Days Troops belonging to Massachusetts, now doing Garrison duty at the Forts on the Coast, are hereby authorized to re-enlist their commands for One Year's service, unless sooner discharged, for said Garrison duty. The Companies will be filled to the maximum by new enlistments, to take the place of those who refuse to re-enlist."
In response to this order six of the one hundred days companies were recruited up to the minimum standard and re-mustered for one year's service during November and December, 1864, and four new companies were enlisted for the same period, many of the recruits having served in unattached companies, one hundred days or in one hundred days regiments. In fact, the 27th Unattached Company, One Year, might be said to have been a reorganization of Co. "C", 8th Regiment, One Hundred Days. The 24th, 25th, 26th, and most of the men of the 27th Companies were mustered into the United States service during the month of December, 1864.
A schedule of the one year companies appears below.
As the war was practically at an end before May 1, 1865, none of the one year companies served its full term of enlistment. All, except the 2d Company, were mustered out in May and June, 1865, and the 2d Company on the 7th of July.
2nd Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
17th Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
18th Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
19th Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
21st Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
27th Unattached Company Infantry (1 Year)
The entry into the service of these three
units (Boston Cadets---Salem Cadets---4th
Infantry Battalion (Militia)) of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia is closely
associated with "the great scare" so called, caused by the defeat of General
Banks' force in the Shenandoah Valley, on the 24th and 25th of May, 1862, by the
Confederates under Stonewall Jackson.
At a late hour on the 25th two telegrams were received from Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, the text of which is here given :
"Send all the troops forward that you can, immediately. Banks is completely routed. The enemy are, in large force, advancing on Harper's Ferry."
"Intelligence from various quarters leaves no doubt that the enemy, in great force, are advancing on Washington. You will please organize and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia force in your State."
In response to these telegrams, on the morning of May 26, General Order No. 13 was issued from the office of the Adjutant General directing that the battalion of six companies stationed at Fort Warren should be raised immediately to a regiment and placed under command of Major Francis J. Parker as Colonel.
On the day following that on which this order was issued these six companies, which were to be thereafter known as the 32d Regt. Mass. Vol. Inf., were on their way to Washington. The departure of these companies left Fort Warren practically without a garrison.
On this same 26th day of May Special Order No. 94 was issued directing the Companies of Cadets of the First and Second Divisions, the Boston and Salem Cadets so called, commanded respectively by Lieutenant Colonel Christopher C. Holmes and Major John Louis Marks, to report forthwith to Colonel Dimmick (Dimick), U. S. A., commanding at
Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, for active service. These companies responded immediately, and before this eventful day was done they were mustered into the service of the United States and took up their duties at the fort.
By another special order issued on the 26th the 4th Battalion of Infantry commanded by Major Francis L. Lee had also been called out to do garrison duty at Fort Warren. The battalion responded and on the morning of May 27, was mustered into the service.
Telegrams arriving from Washington on the 27th showed that the danger to the capital was past, and the alarm which had been caused in Massachusetts subsided. It was evident that the two Companies of Cadets would provide a sufficient guard for Fort Warren, so, by General Order No. 16, dated May 27, it was ordered that the 4th Battalion of
Infantry should be mustered out. This was done on May 31, the battalion having been in the service four days. This same General Order No. 16 directed that the two Companies of Cadets should be mustered out as soon as they were relieved from duty at Fort Warren. The Boston Cadets were retained in the service until July 2, when their places were taken by Co. "B", 7th Regt. Inf., M. V. M., while the Salem Cadets were retained until October 11, on which dates respectively the Cadet Companies were mustered out and discharged.