Organized at Philadelphia September 19, 1861. Garrison at Fort Delaware entire term. Mustered out June 30, 1865.
Lost during service 1 Officer and 16 Enlisted men by disease. Total 17.
Battery A was recruited in the city of Philadelphia, during the month of August, 1861. Its original strength was eighty men. It was mustered into service on the 19th of September, at the Filbert Street Arsenal, and was soon after sent to Fort Delaware, where it performed heavy artillery duty during its entire term of service. In July, 1863, it was re-inforced by new recruits, bringing its strength up to one hundred and fifty men. At the conclusion of the original term of three years, most of the men, whose terms then expired, were mustered out, and recruits were again received in sufficient numbers to preserve its strength at one hundred and fifty. It was mustered out of service at Camp Cadwalader, on the 30th of June, 1865.
Source for history & rosters: History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers 1861-1865; prepared in Compliance With Acts of the Legislature, by Samuel P. Bates, A Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Volume V, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, State Printer. 1871.
Organized at Erie and Chambersburg August, 1861. Moved, with 77th Pennsylvania, to Louisville, Ky., October 18, 1861; thence to Camp Nevin, Ky. Attached to Negley's Brigade, McCook's Command, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. Artillery, 2nd Division, Army of the Ohio, to June, 1862. Artillery, 5th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. Artillery, 5th Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. Artillery, 3rd Division, Left Wing, 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. Artillery, 3rd Division, 21st Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. Artillery, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. Artillery, 1st Division, 4th Corps, to July, 1864. Artillery Brigade, 4th Corps, to August, 1865. Dept. of Texas to October, 1865.
SERVICE.--Camp at Nolin River, Ky., until February, 1862. March to Bowling Green, Ky.; thence to Nashville, Tenn., February 14-March 3. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 16-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7 (Reserve). Advance on and Siege of.Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 6. Buell's Campaign in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg, August 20-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-22. Battle of Perryville. Ky., October 8. Logan's Cross Roads October 18. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 6 and duty there until December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River, and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign, August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga September 24-October 27. Battles of Chattanooga November 23-25; Mission Ridge November 24-25; Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May to September, 1864. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9. Demonstration on Dalton May 9-13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Near Kingston May 18-19. Near Cassville May 19. Kingston May 21. Cassville May 24. New Hope Church May 25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills, May 26-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, or Smyrna Camp Ground, July 4. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Operations in North Georgia and North Alabama against Hood September 29-November 3. Nashville Campaign November-December. Spring Hill November 23 and November 29. Battle of Franklin November 30. Near Nashville December 6. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Moved to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there until March, 1865. Operations in North Georgia and East Tennessee January 31-April 24. Duty at Nashville, Tenn., until June. Moved to New Orleans, La,, thence to Texas, and duty there until October, 1865. Mustered out October 12, 1865.
Battery lost during service 2 Officers and 8 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 25 Enlisted men by disease. Total 35.
The order for recruiting the Seventy-seventh Regiment, provided for
eight companies of infantry, and one of artillery. A company for the latter
service, was recruited in Franklin county, by Captain Peter B. Housum; but not
having the required strength, it was consolidated with one recruited for similar
service in Erie county, by Captain Charles F. Muehler, and was mustered into
service at Pittsburg, on the 6th of November, 1861, under command of the latter,
Captain Housum being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. With the regiment, the
battery proceeded down the Ohio River, to Louisville, Kentucky. After a few
days' delay, it was sent by the line of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad to
Camp Nevin, where it was instructed and drilled. Towards the close of the year,
it was detached from the regiment, and was afterwards known as Independent
Battery B. From Camp Nevin, it marched to Mumfordsville, on Green River, the
rebel General John Morgan having, on the day preceding the movement, burned the
bridge near Muldraugh's Hill.
Soon after the success of the Union arms at forts Henry and Donaldson, on the 16th of February, 1862, General Grant commenced moving up the Cumberland River, and on the 6th of April, the battle of Pittsburg Landing opened. Buell, who commanded the Army of the Cumberland, made a corresponding movement by way of Nashville, and reached the battle-ground with aportion of his forces, during the night of the 6th, taking part in the fighting of the 7th. The battery did not arrive on the field until after the battle was over, and the enemy was repulsed.
When the united armies moved forward to Corinth, it marched with General Crittenden's column, to which it was attached, and with it participated in the operations, by which the enemy was again driven. In the campaign which followed, extending through northern Mississippi and Alabama, it accompanied the main army, and when Bragg commenced his march on Louisville, made forced marches with the rest of the army, to reach that point in advance of him.
At Perryville, where a part ofthe Union army met and defeated Bragg on the 8th of October, the battery was unable to reach the field until the fighting was over, and the enemy in full retreat. A vigorous pursuit was at once commenced, and on the closing day of the year, General Rosecrans, who had succeeded Buell in command of the army, encountered Bragg at Murfreesboro, where a general engagement occurred, in which, for five days, the battery was in the hottest of the fight, doing signal service, and sustaining severe losses. For its gallantry on this sanguinary field, it was warmly complimented by General Rosecrans.
In the battle of Murfreesboro, on the 19th of September, 1863, it was again hotly engaged,and here Captain Alanson J. Stevens, who had succeeded Captain Muehler, was killed. For a time after the battle, the army was closely shut up in Chattanooga, whither it had retired, and suffered severely from lack of provisions. But in the battle which was fought at Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, where the battery again did excellent service, Bragg was swept from his strongholds, and driven in confusion southward.
During the succeeding winter, a large proportion of the original men reenlisted, preserving it as a veteran organization, and a considerable number of recruits were added to its strength.
In the spring of 1864, the battery moved with Sherman on his Atlanta campaign, and the hundred days, during which the fighting was almost incessant, it was with the Fourth Corps, commanded by General Stanley, to which it had been transferred soon after the battle of Chickamauga.
In the bold and bloody assault on the enemy's lines at Kenesaw Mountain, on the 27th of June, Captain Samuel M. M'Dowell, who had succeeded to the command after the fall of Captain Stevens, was killed. Upon the fall of Atlanta, on the 2d of September, General Hood, who had succeeded General Johnston in command of the rebel army, moved upon the communications of Sherman, in the direction of Chattanooga, and the latter, with the Fourth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Seventeenth corps, followed him. When it was evident that Hood intended to open a campaign in Tennessee, Sherman placed what forces he could spare under General Thomas, with which to meet Hood, and returning with the major part of his army to Atlanta, soon after commenced his famous march to the sea. The Fourth Corps was left with Thomas.
Wood's Division of the Fourth Corps reached Athens on the 31st of October, and shortly afterwards the entire corps was concentrated at Pulaski. Gradually the Union troops, which were out numbered two to one, fell back to Columbia, and finally to Franklin, where General Schofield, who was in command, prepared to give battle. The enemy attacked with great impetuosity, but was hurled back with fearful loss. From half-past three until after dark the battle raged, the fighting extending along a front of two miles, reaching from the extreme Union left to the right centre. General Stanley was wounded in the battle, and the command of the corps devolved on General Wood. During the night, Schofield withdrew his forces to Nashville, where preparations were made for defense, until such time as Thomas should be prepared to assume the offensive.
On the morning of the 15th of December, the order for the attack was given, and for two days the battle raged with great fury. Finally, the enemy, hard pressed on all sides, was driven from the field. The pursuit was vigorously pushed, and frequent skirmishing continued until Hood was driven from Tennessee, and his army virtually broken up.
After the surrender of the rebel armies, the battery was sent to Texas, in conjunction with other troops, where it remained on duty until the 12th of October, when it was mustered out of service at Victoria.
Source for history & rosters: History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers 1861-1865; prepared in Compliance With Acts of the Legislature, by Samuel P. Bates, A Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Volume V, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, State Printer. 1871.
(Click on picture for a larger one)
Peach Orchard, Wheatfield Road Gettysburg
Organized at Pittsburgh November 6, 1861. Moved to Washington, D.C., November, 1861. Attached to Military District of Washington until May, 1862. Ord's Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 2nd Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863. 1st Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac, to November, 1863. Artillery Brigade, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. Camp Barry, Defenses of Washington, 22nd Army Corps, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.--Duty in the Defenses of Washington, D. C., until May, 1862. Duty at Front Royal, Catlett's Station, Warrenton and Waterloo, until August. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 10-September 2. Crooked Run August 12. Fords of the Rappahannock August 21-23. Thoroughfare Gap August 28. Bull Run August 29-30. Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September 6-24. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Duty at Sharpsburg, Md., until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth and Belle Plains until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Pollock's Mill Creek April 29-May 2. Fitzhugh's Crossing April 29-30. Chancellorsville May 2-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Advance to line of the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Morton's Ford February 6-7. Ordered to Defenses of Washington and duty at Camp Barry and in Defenses south of the Potomac until June, 1865. Mustered out June 30, 1865.
Battery lost during service 1 Officer and 2 Enlisted men killed and 21 Enlisted men by disease. Total 24.
The troops for this battery were recruited at Pittsburg, to serve for
three years, and were organized on the 6th of November, 1861, with the following
James Thompson, Captain
John P. Barry, Lieutenant
James Stephenson, Lieutenant
Soon after its organization it was ordered to the front, and during the fall and winter succeeding, was carefully drilled. It was assigned to the Second Division, commanded by General Ricketts, of the Third Corps, General M'Dowell, which subsequently became part of General Pope's army.
When M'Clellan, with the major part of the Army of the Potomac moved to the Peninsula, in the spring of 1862, M'Dowell's Corps remained behind to cover Washington, and did not advance further south than the Rappahannock. When the safety of Washington became endangered by the threatening attitude which the rebel army assumed after the seven days' battle before Richmond, M'Dowell's Corps was pushed out to meet and check the rebel advance. Banks met a powerful division of that army under Jackson and Ewell, at Cedar Mountain, towards the close of the day, on the 9th of August, and a most sanguinary battle ensued. M'Dowell's corps came quickly to the support of Banks, Thompson's Battery arriving on the ground just at dark. As it was moving into position, the enemy opened upon it with canister. The infantry had formed between it and the enemy, preventing the use of canister, and Captain Thompson, accordingly replied with shells from his two twelve-pound howitzers, which, in a short time silenced the rebel fire. With his Parrott guns, he directed a hot fire upon the woods where the enemy held his supports. The fire was kept up until far into the night. On the following day, the enemy sent in a flag of truce, for permission to bury his dead, and afterwards retreated across the Rapidan. With Buford's Cavalry Brigade, the battery advanced to Robertson's River, on the 12th, and skirmished with the enemy, putting his cavalry to flight.
On the 21st, the battery was brought down to Rappahannock Bridge, and ordered to cross to the south bank, to the assistance of Captain Mathews, of the First Pennsylvania Artillery, who was being hard pressed by the enemy. As soon as Captain Thompson could get his guns into position, Mathews retired, and fire was opened, skirmishing being kept up during the entire day. On the following day there was occasional firing, but without loss.
At daylight on the 22d, the battery was ordered to retire across the railroad bridge, fears being entertained for its safety, on account of a sudden rise of the water. The howitzers moved with Hurtsuff's Brigade, and effected a crossing; but as the Parrotts were about to follow, the enemy made his appearance, and opened upon them. Captain Thompson replied, causing the enemy to frequently change his position. Soon two brigades of infantry made their appearance, and upon these Thompson turned a part of his guns, keeping up a fire also upon the enemy's artillery. At the moment when the ammunition was exhausted, an order was received to retire across the bridge, which order was successfully executed. The enemy came rapidly up, and soon made his appearance on the little eminence which had just been abandoned; but a few shells from the howitzers sent him back.
Jackson finally turned the right of Pope, and came in upon his rear. To check Longstreet, who was following hard upon the footsteps of Jackson, and if possible divide the rebel army, Ricketts was ordered to Thoroughfare Gap. On nearing the Gap, Captain Thompson found the road through the woods obstructed. By the aid of the pioneers of the Ninth New York, the obstructions were cleared away, Captain Mathews having taken position with his battery in advance. General Ricketts ordered Captain Thompson to cross the creek with two guns, if practicable, and take position on the opposite side. This was effected, and a fire opened upon the enemy at three hundred yards distance. The skirmishers, who were in advance, were soon after obliged to retire, leaving the guns exposed to a severe fire from the rebel sharp-shooters, posted in trees and behind rocks. Seeing this, an order was sent to Thompson to retire with his guns, which he succeeded in doing, with the loss of two men wounded, one missing, and one horse killed. The division retired at night towards New Market, the battery acting as rear guard upon the march.
During the fierce fighting at Bull Run on the 30th, the battery was ordered into position on the right of the line occupied by the corps, and at ten A. M., opened a sharp fire from the Parrott guns upon a rebel battery, posted in rear of woods opposite the centre, which was engaged in throwing shells with deadly effect. Captain Thompson had not been long in action, before the enemy brought a six-gun battery to bear upon his right flank, subjecting him to a severe cross-fire. Seeing that his position was untenable, and that the enemy's infantry was preparing to charge for the capture of his guns, he withdrew and took position on the right of the line. At half-past three in the afternoon, the battery was again brought into action on the right of the artillery, on a line at right angles with Captain Mathews' Battery, with the design of delivering a cross-fire upon the rebel batteries. Soon the enemy's infantry was descried, advancing from the wood, and charging upon the guns on the crest in front. Captain Thompson at once opened with grape and canister upon these advancing lines, and twice their colors were shot down. But the Union batteries were soon afterwards obliged to retire, their supports having been driven away, and in passing through the woods in his rear, Captain Thompson was flanked by the enemy's infantry, who opened a galling fire upon him, killing several of the draught horses, cutting down and capturing the drivers, and compelling him to abandon one Parrott and two howitzer guns, with limbers and horses.
At the Stone Bridge across Bull Run, Captain Thompson took position with one of his guns, and in conjunction with guns of other batteries hurriedly collected, covered the retreat, until all the Union forces had passed, when the bridge was destroyed by Colonel Kane, of the Bucktails. He then retired with the three guns which he had saved, to Centreville. The loss was ten wounded, a part of whom fell into the enemy7s hands. Lieutenant Stephenson was among the severely wounded.
On the evening of September 1st, the battery was engaged in the fierce fighting at Chantilly, where it was supported by the Bucktails.
At the close of the campaign, the battery retired to Washington, and was immediately put upon the march through Maryland, to meet the enemy, who had crossed the Potomac, receiving four ten-pound rifled guns from the Second Maine, at Rockville, while on the march. In the battle at South Mountain, on the 14th, it was engaged, but sustained no loss. On the morning of the 17th of September, the battery was brought into position upon the field at Antietam, and went into action upon the right of the line, with Duryea's Brigade, replying to a rebel battery upon the right front. Finding that a battery upon the left had gotten the exact range of his guns, Captain Thompson turned his fire upon it.
" Immediately afterwards," says Captain Thompson, in his official report, " I was ordered to advance, when I selected a little knoll in the centre of a corn-field, and coming into action, I observed the enemy's infantry advancing from the woods to our right. I at once directed my fire on them, using three, two, and one and a-half second fuse as they advanced, but was unable to use canister, as many of our men retiring, wounded, got in front of my guns. Finding at length, the remnants of the brigade retiring their ammunition exhausted-and the enemy already in the corn-field, within seventy-five yards of the battery, I retired to the rising ground in the centre of the grass-field, about two hundred yards in rear, and continued my fire. But finding that all of our division had gone, and that my men and horses were falling fast, I limbered up and moved off, just as fresh troops coming up, obliqued across the front of the battery into position for our relief."
One gun had to be abandoned for a few moments, on account of the loss of horses, until other horses could return for it, when guns and limbers were brought off in safety. The loss was eleven men wounded, one mortally, and thirteen horses killed.
In the re-organization of the army which took place under General Burnside, the battery was attached to the Second Division of the First Corps, with which it participated on the 13th of December, in the battle of Fredericksburg. At nine o'clock on the morning of that day, the corps having previously crossed the Rappahannock at the lower bridge, the battery was ordered into position in a corn-field to the right of the division, and opened fire upon the enemy, in the edge of the wood to the right, thus preventing him from flanking the division as it went forward. But a few rounds had been delivered, when the battery was ordered to advance closer, and to the right. From the new position, a rapid fire was directed upon the enemy's infantry, though it was subjected to a galling cross-fire from the enemy's guns. To these, Captain Thompson refused to reply, until the infantry of the division had been compelled to fall back, when he turned upon them and continued his fire until ordered back, succeeding in the meantime, in exploding one of the enemy's ammunition chests. The loss was two men wounded, and two horses killed. One gun, and one gun carriage were disabled.
When General Hooker commenced his Chancellorsville campaign, towards the close of April, 1863, the First Corps was again sent to the lower crossing of the Rappahannock. Captain Thompson took position with his battery at daylight on the 29th, near Purdy's Dam, to cover the troops while laying the pontoons, and the march in crossing. The fog was dense, but at seven A. M., twelve rounds were fired upon parties of the enemy, fourteen hundred yards away. The following day was rainy, and quiet prevailed, until a little past five P. M., when the enemy opened with a battery of twenty-pounder Parrott guns upon the Union infantry, and Thompson promptly replied, and though subjected to a cross-fire, continued the contest until dark.
The morning of the 2d of May, opened clear. and from eight, until half-past nine A. M., Captain Thompson engaged the enemy's batteries. At eleven, he moved with the corps for the support of Hooker at Chancellorsville, arriving at the front, and taking position on the right of the army line at two A. M.; but at eleven was relieved and ordered to join the reserve artillery.
On the morning of the 5th, it recrossed the river, and took position to cover the pontoon bridge, which was threatened by the enemy, who had approached from below. At daylight of the 6th, the enemy was discovered throwing up earth-works on an opposite eminence. Fire was opened upon him, to which he answered with two twenty-four pound howitzers, and several rifled guns posted to right and left. With the aid of Knap's Battery, Captain Thompson succeeded in blowing up the rebel caissons, silencing their guns, and compelling the gunners to run to cover of woods, leaving their pieces on the field. When the army had recrossed the river, and the last of the pontoons had been taken up, the battery retired and returned to camp. The loss was one man killed, and three wounded. Three horses were also killed.
In this battle, Captain Hampton, who commanded Independent Battery F, was killed, and his battery seriously disabled. So much reduced in number had both batteries become, that on the 3d of June, a special order was issued consolidating the two under command of the senior officer, Captain Thompson. It was then directed to report to General Tyler, in command of the artillery reserve of the Army of the Potomac, and was by him assigned to M'Gilvery's Brigade.
At five o'clock on the afternoon of the 2d of July, the second day of the battle of Gettysburg, the reserve artillery having come up in rear of the lines at Little Round Top, Colonel M'Gilvery ordered Captain Thompson to advance with his battery to the support of General Sickles, who was already engaged. It was accordingly brought into position at the angle of Sickles' line, in the Peach Orchard on the Emmettsburg Pike, two guns facing to the west, and four to the south, and for the space of an hour was desperately engaged with the enemy's infantry and artillery. The enemy then made a determined advance, driving back the Union infantry, and leaving the battery without supports, at the same time capturing one of the guns facing to the west. The Union infantry, however, soon after rallied, and the gun was saved. The battery was then withdrawn a short distance, and again brought into action; but the pressure became too great to withstand, the enemy gaining ground rapidly, and it again retired with the loss of one gun. The loss in this brief struggle was one killed, nine wounded, and four missing. Captain Thompson had one horse killed under him, and eighteen horses of the battery killed or wounded.
During the night, horses were supplied in place of those lost, and at five o'clock on the morning of the 3d, it was again brought into position, on the left centre of the general line of battle, with battery K, Fourth United States, on its right, and Fifteenth New York, (Hart's,) on its left. The ground at this point was low, and the enemy's guns on the commanding position in front and to the left, bore heavily upon it. But this was a vital part of the line and had to be defended. During the progress of the fierce artillery duel in the afternoon, the battery suffered severely, but held its ground, and defiantly answered shot for shot. The loss on this day was fourteen wounded.
Among these were Captains Thompson and Irish, and Lieutenants Stephenson, Hazlett, and Miller, the latter mortally. Special mention was made by Captain Thompson, in his official report, of the gallant conduct of Sergeant Thomas Brown. Of private Casper R. Carlisle, he says: "When the four lead horses of one of the guns were killed, one wheel horse badly wounded, and drivers also wounded, he assisted me to disengage the traces of the dead leaders, under a heavy fire of musketry, (in the action of the 2d instant,) and mounting one of the wheel horses, took the gun off the field, thereby saving it. I recommends that a medal be granted him for his conduct on this occasion, and subsequent good conduct on the 3d instant."
Colonel M'Gilvery, says in his official report: " In conclusion, I feel it my duty to state, that the officers and men of my own brigade, and other batteries that served under me, during the two days' battle, behaved in the most gallant manner. * * * On the 2d of July, when the battle raged most furiously, Thompson's, C and F, Pennsylvania Battery, contested every inch of ground, and remained on the field to the very last."
The battery was afterwards engaged in the affairs at Mitchell's Ford, on the 15th of October, at Mine Run, on the 27th of November, and at Morton's Ford, on the Rapidan, on the 6th of February, 1864, but sustained only trifling loss in either.
In the spring of 1864, a sufficient number of recruits had been received, to renew the organization of the two batteries, which was accordingly effected, and on the 5th of April they were ordered from Camp Hancock, near Brandy Station, where the command had been stationed during the winter, to Camp Barry, Washington, to re-fit and equip for active duty. They were, however, retained in the defenses north and south of Washington, and in the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry, until the 20th of June, 1865, when battery C was ordered to Pittsburg, where, on the 30th, it was mustered out of service.
Source for history & rosters: History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers 1861-1865; prepared in Compliance With Acts of the Legislature, by Samuel P. Bates, A Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Volume V, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, State Printer. 1871.
Pennsylvania Durell's Independent Battery D, Antietam
|Durell's Independent Battery "D"
2nd Brigade 2nd Division
Posted 375 yards South - 70 Degrees East Casualties at Antietam
Recruited in Berks and Bucks Counties
Virtue, Liberty and Independence
Organized at Doylestown and mustered in September 24, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., November 5, 1861. Attached to McDowell's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. King's 1st Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1862. King's Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. Artillery, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to August, 1862. Artillery, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1863. Army of the Ohio to June, 1863, and Army of the Tennessee to August, 1863. Covington, Ky., Dept. of the Ohio, to March, 1864. Artillery, 4th Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.--Dutyat Kalorama Heights, Defenses of Washington, D.C., until November 14, 1861. At East Capital Hill until December 18, and at Munson's Hill until March 10, 1861. Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-15. McDowell's advance to Falmouth April 9-19. Capture of Fredericksburg April 18. Expedition to Thoroughfare Gap and operations against Jackson May 29-June 21. At Falmouth until August. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Kelly's Ford August 21. Near Warrenton August 22-23 supporting Buford's Cavalry. Kettle Run or Bristoe Station August 27. Battle of Bull Run August 29-30. Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September 6-24. Battles of South Mountain September 14, and Antietam September 16-17. Ad Pleasant Valley until October 25. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 25-November 19. Warrenton or Sulphur Springs November 15. Berryville December 1. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Moved to Newport News February 7, thence to Cynthiana, Ky., March 23-April 1. At Paris, Mt. Sterling, Richmond, Lancaster, Crab Orchard and Stanford, Ky., until June. Movement to Vicksburg, Miss., June 3-14. Siege of Vicksburg June 15-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 5-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. At Milldale until August 6. Moved to Covington, Ky., August 6-22, and duty there until March 21, 1864. Moved to Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, Ohio, November 12-16 to repel threatened raid to release prisoners. Moved to Annapolis, Md., March 21-26. Rapidan Campaign May-June. Guarding supply trains through the Wilderness and to James River May 4-June 16. Siege of Petersburg June 16-18 to April 2, 1865. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30, 1864. Ream's Station, Weldon Railroad, August 25. Peeble's Farm, Poplar Grove Church, September 30-October 1. Old members mustered out September 23, 1864. Fort Stedman March 25, 1865. Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. Moved to City Point April 20; thence to Alexandria April 25-27. Grand Review May 23. Mustered out June 13, 1865.
Battery lost during service 1 Officer and 2 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 21 Enlisted men by disease. Total 24.
Recruited in Berks and Bucks Counties
This battery was recruited in the counties of Berks and Bucks, and was organized at Doylestown, on the 24th of September, 1861, with these officers:
George W. Durell, Captain
Lemuel Greis, First Lieutenant
Howard M'Ilvain, First Lieutenant,
George W. Silvis, Second Lieutenants
Christopher Loeser, Second Lieutenant
On the 6th of November, it was ordered to Washington, where, upon its arrival, it received four ten-pound Parrott guns, and horses and equipments for a six-gun battery, and encamped east of the Capitol. On the 11th of December, it crossed the Potomac, and encamped on Munson's Hill, where it was assigned to M'Dowell's Division, and where two additional pieces were provided.
In the fruitless advance upon Manassas, on the 10th of March, 1862, the battery was with the leading column, and upon its return, encamped midway between Alexandria and Bailey's Cross Roads. With King's Division of MI'Dowell's Corps, it moved by Bristoe Station, and Catlett's to Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, arriving on the 18th of April.
When Jackson made his successful campaign down the Shenandoah Valley, the battery made a forced march with the corps to Thoroughfare Gap, to intercept him on his retreat; but arrived too late to effect that purpose, and returned again to Falmouth, where, for a period of two months, it was instructed and drilled.
On the 12th of August, it was assigned to the Second Division of the Ninth Corps, and immediately marched with it to the assistance of Pope, who was now being vigorously pushed by the overpowering forces of Lee. At Kelly's Ford, on the 21st, it was for the first time brought into action. The left section became first engaged, and for half an hour exchanged rapid shots with the rebel guns. The whole battery, flanked by a regiment of Buford's Cavalry, then went into action, and after delivering about forty rounds, drove the enemy from his position.
At night, it retired across the river, and on the following morning, moved on towards Warrenton, the centre section supporting Buford's Cavalry for a day and a night. On the morning of the 27th, just upon the eve of the second battle of Bull Run, it was assigned for duty to the division of General Hooker, who was moving to meet the enemy under Jackson, then upon the rear of the Union army. At Bristoe Station, brisk skirmishing with the infantry opened, and was maintained for a few hours, when the battery was ordered up, and aided by a Rhode Island battery, succeeded in driving the enemy from three successive positions, and finally out of sight towards Manassas Junction. One horse was killed in this engagement.
On the morning of the 28th, it moved to the Junction, and at night, to Centreville. On the 29th, it advanced across Bull Run, and when the battle began to rage with great violence, went into position a half mile to the right and front of the Stone Hospital. Until near night of the 30th, it remained in this position, and until the left of the line had been forced back, and the enemy's shots began to tell upon its left flank. One gun was dismounted, two horses killed, and one man wounded, when, finding that the ground was untenable, it was ordered to retire. A new position, a few hundred yards in its rear, was taken up, and fire opened at long range, but at the end of twenty minutes, it was again ordered back and retired to Centreville. During the 31st, it remained in the fortifications, and on the evening of the following day participated in the short, but bloody battle of Chantilly, where it was the only battery, save one, engaged.
On the 2d of September, the battery proceeded to the Washington Arsenal, where it was re-fitted and fully equipped, and shortly afterwards moved on the Maryland campaign.
"At three P. M., on the 13th," says Lieutenant Rhoads, " we went into position, near the top of South Mountain. We were very successful in this engagement, had good ammunition, twice silenced and drove off a rebel battery, and harassed the rebel infantry as they advanced on our troops on the right of our position, firing from our six guns about two hundred and fifty rounds. The next day, we moved after the enemy, toward Antietam. On the morning of the 17th, we were shelled out of camp at daylight, and immediately went into position, and opened fire in reply. At nine A. M., we were ordered to the rear of Stone Bridge, No. 3, nearly opposite Sharpsburg, and just before General Hartranft took the bridge, our centre section moved near to the bridge, and followed closely the General's infantry across. This section was soon after joined by the rest of the battery, and the whole went into position at a point about nine hundred yards from the rebel guns opposed to us, which we engaged whenever they opened, at short intervals, for upwards of two hours, and only retired when we got out of projectiles, and were ordered back, the general commanding us, not deeming it advisable to allow our caissons to cross the bridge to bring up a supply of ammunition. This was the most desperate engagement, I think, and at shortest range, which our battery was in. Our loss was two men dangerously wounded; several of our horses dropped down in their harness from exhaustion, and had to be left on the field."
After the return of the army into Virginia, the battery moved with the corps, and on the 10th of November, was present in the affair at Amissville, but did not become engaged. On the 15th, at Sulphur Springs, it was brought into action, and for upwards of an hour answered a hot fire of the enemy, expending over three hundred rounds. Lieutenant M'Ilvaine was mortally, and one man severely wounded in this engagement. In the battle of Fredericksburg, in December, the battery was brought early into action, but at long range, and sustained no loss.
When the Ninth Corps was sent west, near the close of March, 1863, the battery accompanied it, and was for some time stationed at Paris, Mount Sterling, and Crab Orchard, Kentucky. Early in June, the corps was ordered to Vicksburg, to the support of Grant's army, and embarked at Lexington on the 6th of June. On the 15th, it passed up the Yazoo River, and landing at a point about twelve miles in rear of Vicksburg, took up a position facing Jackson, in readiness to meet the enemy, should he attempt to raise the siege.
On the 4th of July, immediately after the fall of Vicksburg, it moved out towards Jackson, arriving before the town on the 10th. The battery was brought into position, and for several days kept up a steady fire on the place, sending a shell every ten minutes. Johnston finally retired before the forces of Sherman, and the battery with the corps, returned to its camp upon the Yazoo.
About the middle of August, the corps returned to Covington, Kentucky, where the battery, much reduced, was left in camp, the corps proceeding on its campaign, in East Tennessee. When the battery left Kentucky for Vicksburg, it was in excellent condition, numbering one hundred and twenty strong, having arms, accoutrements, and horses well supplied, and all in the highest state of efficiency.
Upon its return, after an absence of a little more than two months, ten of its number had died, about forty were sick in hospital, and of those who were in camp, only some twenty or thirty were fit for duty. The loss among the horses was even greater than among the men. About half of the entire number had died, and of those that remained, but a small number were serviceable.
The battery remained at Covington, until the spring of 1864. At one time, during the winter, a rumor prevailed that an attempt was to be made by the enemy, and by those sympathizing with him, to rescue rebel prisoners confined on Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, near Sandusky, whereupon all the available men of the battery were sent thither, to meet the threatened danger, remaining at Sandusky until ample forces had been collected for the safe keeping of the prisoners.
In April, it was sent to Washington, where it was re-fitted. Recruits were here received in sufficient numbers to give it its original strength, and an entire new battery of ten-pound Parrott guns. Upon the opening of operations in the spring of 1864, it again marched with the corps, being attached to the Fourth Division, and during the Wilderness campaign covered the wagon-train.
About the middle of June, it arrived before Petersburg, and was at once put upon the front. Upon the occasion of springing the mine, on the 30th of July, it was posted in Fort Morton, and kept up a ceaseless fire.
A month later, it was engaged at Pegram's Farm, and during the subsequent operations before the beleaguered city, occupied at various times Forts Michael, Sedgwick, Stephenson, Blaisdell, Patrick Kelly, and other minor works.
In September, Captain Durell was honorably discharged, and Lieutenant Rhoads was promoted to succeed him. When the final attack on the defenses of Petersburg was made, on the morning of the 2d of April, 1865, by Hartranft's command, the entire battery of six guns was brought to bear upon the rebel works, and when' these had been carried, detachments from the battery were sent forward to turn the captured guns upon the flying enemy.
After the evacuation of the city, which immediately followed, it moved with the corps along the South Side Railroad, as far as Wilson's Station, but upon the surrender of Lee, returned to City Point, and thence to Alexandria. It was mustered out of service at Philadelphia, on the 13th of June, 1865.
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Culp's Hill summit. Gettysburg
Independent Battery E
Located on Powers Hill behind 77th N.Y. Infantry in the woods. Off of Granite Schoolhouse Road.
"Mustered in Oct. 1st 1861. Re-enlisted Jan. 1864. Mustered out June 14th 1865."
"At 3:30 p.m. July 2nd one gun was placed on Culp's Hill in the position marked by a monument, and was joined by two others at 5 p.m., when the three guns engaged the enemy's batteries on Benner's Hill. These guns were withdrawn when the Infantry was ordered to the left and the Battery went into this position where it remained until the close of the battle."
"Present at Gettysburg 4 officers and 135 men. Wounded 3 men."
Organized at Point of Rocks, Md., from a Company formed for 63rd Pennsylvania and surplus men of the 28th Pennsylvania Infantry September, 1861. Attached to W. F. Smith's Division, Army of the Potomac, to November, 1861. Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. Geary's Separate Brigade, Banks' 5th Army Corps, to April, 1862. Geary's Separate Brigade, Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862. Geary's Separate Brigade, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. Artillery, 2nd Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. Artillery, 2nd Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1863. Artillery Brigade, 12th Army Corps, To December, 1863. Artillery, 2nd Division, 12th Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. Artillery, 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps, to July, 1864. Artillery Brigade, 20th Army Corps, do June, 1865.
SERVICE.--Camp at East Capital Hill, Defenses of Washington, until November 24, 1861. Moved to Point of Rocks November 24. Duty there and near Harper's Ferry until February 28, 1862. Action at Point of Rocks December 19. Occupation of Loedon Heights February 28. Operations on line of Manassas Gap Railroad March 1-April 14. Capture of Lovettsville March 1. March to Wheetland and Leesburg March 7-8. Capture of Leesburg March 8. Advance to Snickersville March 12. Upperville March 14. Ashby's Gap March 15. Middleburg March 27. Operations about Middleburg and White Plains March 27-28. Salem April 1. Thoroughfare Gap April 2. Piedmont April 14. Guarding Railroad at Salem until May 23. Front Royal May 23. Retreat to Manassas May 24-25. Guard Railroad and operations in the Valley until August. Reconnaissance to Orange and Culpeper Court House July 12-17. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Rappahannock Bridge August 21. Sulphur Springs August 23-25. Maryland Campaign September 2-23. Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 19-23. Duty at Sandy Hook until December. Reconnaissance to Rippon November 9. Reconnaissance to Winchester December 2-6. Berryville December 2. Winchester December 4 March To Fairfax Station December 9-17, and duty there until January 20, 1863. "Mud March" January 20-24. At Acquia Creek until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Movement to Bridgeport, Ala., September 24-October 3. Wauhatchie, Tenn., October 28-29. Battles of Chattanooga November 23-25; Lookout Mountain November 23-24; Mission Ridge November 25; Ringgold Gap, Taylor's Ridge, November 27. Reenlisted January, 1864, and on furlough January and February. Expedition down Tennessee River to Triana April 12-16. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May to September. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Dug Gap or Mill Springs May 8. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Near Cassville May 19. New Hope Church May 25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Altoona Hills May 26-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Mountain June 11-14. Gilgal or Golgotha Church June 15. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Muddy Creek June 17. Noyes Creek June 19. Kolb's Farm June 22. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station or Smyrna Camp Ground July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Operations at Chattahoochie River Bridge August 26-September 2. Occupation of Atlanta September 2-November 15. Near Atlanta November 9. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Averysboro, N. C., March 16. Battle of Bentonville March 19-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 9-13. Neuse River April 10. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's' House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond. Va., April 29-May 20. Grand Review May 24. Mustered out at Pittsburg June 14, 1865.
Battery lost during service 2 Officers and 12 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 11 Enlisted men by disease. Total 25.
Recruited in Pittsburg
In July, 1861, Joseph M. Knap, at that time serving as First Lieutenant of Company L, of the Twenty-eighth Regiment, Colonel John W. Geary, stationed at Point of Rocks, received authority to recruite a battery to serve with this regiment, which was near the proportions of a brigade, having eighteen full companies. He immediately proceeded to Pittsburg for recruits, and upon his arrival there, found a company which had been raised by Charles A. Atwell, and James D. M'Gill, intended for service in the Sixty-third Regiment, but which was offered to Captain Knap for his battery. It was promptly accepted, and at once proceeded to join the Twenty-eighth. Its ranks, however, were not full, and Colonel Geary applied for, and received permission of the War Department, to transfer surplus men of his command to the battery, in sufficient numbers to give it a maximum strength. It was then formally organized at Camp DeKorponay, Maryland, with the following officers:
Joseph M. Knap, Captain
Charles A. Atwell, First Lieutenant
Clement Tingley, Jr., First Lieutenant
Edward R. Geary, Second Lieutenant
James D. M'Gill, Second Lieutenant
It was immediately after sent to Washington, where, under the direction of General Hunt, in command of the artillery, it was fully armed and equipped, as a six-gun battery. It remained in camp on East Capitol Hill, until the 24th of November, when it returned to Colonel Geary's command. During the winter of 1861-2, the battery remained in the neighborhood of Point of Rocks and Harper's Ferry, taking part in the occasional skirmishing which occurred.
Upon the evacuation of Manassas, in March, 1862, the battery advanced with Geary's Brigade, to the line of the Manassas Gap Railroad, and was posted, four guns under Captain Knap, near Salem, and the remaining two, under Lieutenant Atwell, at Front Royal. When Stonewall Jackson made his rapid advance down the Valley, against the forces of Banks, he struck the advance post at Front Royal, commanded by Colonel Kenly, of the First Maryland, on the 23 of May. Kenly made a gallant resistance, and the section under Atwell did excellent service. But this small detachment, consisting of less than five hundred men, could not long withstand the combined forces of Jackson and Ewell, estimated at twenty-two thousand of all arms, and the order was given to retire towards Winchester. The enemy's cavalry followed closely, and at every available point, sorely harassed the retiring column. Some of the cannoneers fell out by the way from exhaustion, and were captured. The horses, too, driven to the utmost of their strength, began to fail, and it became evident that the guns must be given up, as the enemy was pushing his pursuit with untiring energy. Finally, just before-reaching Winchester, when they could be taken no further, the order was given to spike and abandon them. They were, however, recovered, when Jackson, in turn, found it necessary to hasten his retreat to escape the Union forces closing in on his flanks and rear.
Nothing more serious than marching and counter-marchings were required of the battery, until the opening of the battle at Cedar Mountain, on the 9th of August. Early in the battle, it was posted on an eminence, with the memorable corn-field, the scene of the greatest slaughter, in its front, where it was a prominent mark for the enemy's guns. It had no sooner got into position, than the enemy opened, and concentrated upon it the fire of his heaviest guns, planted along the breast of Slaughter Mountain. For a time his missiles passed harmless; but he soon got the range, and the gunners were swept away before his merciless fire. Its ammunition was finally exhausted, and it was withdrawn. One man belonging to the battery was killed, and a colored servant, who was in the act of carrying ammunition from the chest to the gun. Lieutenant Geary was among the wounded.
The battery was also engaged in the minor skirmishes of Pope's retreat towards Centreville, and at the close of the campaign retired to Washington.
In the battle of Antietam, on the 17th of September, it was engaged, and lost one killed, and a number severely wounded. After the battle, it was encamped at Sandy Hook and Harper's Ferry until the advance upon Fredericksburg, by General Burnside, whence it set out with the Twelfth Corps, to which it was attached, but owing to the horrible condition of the roads, did not reach the field in time to participate in the battle.
During the winter, and until the advance of the army under General Hooker upon Chancellorsville, the battery remained in park at Acquia Creek. On the 1st, 2d, and 3d days of May, during which the battle of Chancellorsville was fought, it was engaged, serving for the first two days with the Twelfth Corps, and on the third, with the First. It had one man killed, and a number slightly wounded; among the latter, Lieutenant Atwell. Captain Knap had his horse shot under him, and himself narrowly escaped death.
On the 18th of May, Captain Knap resigned to accept a partnership in, and the general superintendency of the Fort Pitt Foundry, at Pittsburg, where immense numbers of heavy guns and mortars were being cast for the use of the Navy, and for coast fortifications, a position in which he served his country with great ability and fidelity, the ordnance cast under his supervision being remarkable for their excellence. Lieutenant Atwell was promoted to succeed him, and Orderly Sergeant, Thomas S. Sloan, was commissioned Second Lieutenant.
In the battle of Gettysburg, two guns under Lieutenant Geary, were posted on the extreme right of the Twelfth Corps. The remaining four were with the Second Corps on the first day, but were with the Twelfth during the remainder of the battle. The pursuit of the enemy in his flight from this field, had been carried as far as Culpepper Court House, when, on the 28th of September, the Eleventh and Twelfth corps were ordered to join the Army of the Cumberland, then shut up in Chattanooga. The battery immediately moved to Washington, where it was relieved of all superfluous baggage, and extra horses and ammunition, and proceeded at once by rail to Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and after a brief halt, to Bridgeport, Alabama.
On the 28th of October, with General Geary's column, it commenced moving towards Chattanooga, and arrived at nine o'clock on the evening of the 29th, at Wauhatchie Junetion, where it went into park. At a little after midnight, Geary's command, which consisted of only a part of his division, was attacked by a powerful rebel force. Precautions had been taken by General Geary, as was always his custom, to guard against surprise, and when the rebel forces, in well ordered lines advanced to the onset, they found a foe not unprepared to receive them. The battle raged for a time with fearful earnestness, and the battery was a special target for the rebel infantry fire. The slaughter on both sides was fearful. Finally, finding that no advantage was being gained, and that his ranks were being decimated, the rebel leader gave up the contest, and fled, leaving his dead and wounded on the field. The battery suffered severe loss.
Captain Atwell was mortally wounded, and Lieutenant Geary, son of the General, was killed. The loss in non-commissioned officers and privates was also severe. More than half the horses were killed.
A month later, the battle of Lookout Mountain, and Mission Ridge occurred, in which the battery participated, pursuing the discomfitted enemy to Ringgold, and engaging him with good effect. Returning to Wauhatchie, it went into camp with the rest of Geary's Division, where it remained during the winter.
Early in January, 1864, a majority of the men re-enlisted for a second term, and were given a veteran furlough. Upon their return, they brought with them a number of recruits, giving to its ranks the maximum strength. After the fall of Captain Atwell, Lieutenant M'Gill succeeded to the command of the battery.
Before moving on the spring campaign, the Eleventh and Twelfth corps were consolidated, forming the Twentieth Corps, to the command of which General Hooker was assigned. In the campaign extending from Chattanooga to Atlanta, commencing on the first of May, and terminating with the fall of the latter place on the 1st of September, the battery bore a prominent part, being attached to Geary's Division, and with that division constantly at the post of duty, and frequently called to fierce fighting.
At the battle of Peach Tree Creek, on the 20th of July, Captain M'Gill was severely wounded, and soon after resigned, the command devolving on Lieutenant James A. Dunlevy. Two men were killed and a number of others were severely wounded.
Shortly afterwards, Lieutenant Dunlevy resigned, on account of failing health, and subsequently died of disease contracted in the service, whereupon Lieutenant Sloan was promoted to Captain, who held this position until the close of the service. In the March to the Sea, and the subsequent march northward through the Carolinas, the battery accompanied the corps, sustaining only inconsiderable losses until it reached Raleigh, North Carolina, where it halted, and remained until after the surrender of the rebel armies.
From Raleigh, it proceeded to Washington, where the ordnance and stores were turned over to the Government, and where it went into camp. Early in June, it was ordered to Pittsburg, and on the 14th was mustered out of service.
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(Batteries C & F)
South Hancock Avenue, Cemetery Ridge Gettysburg
On this field the following members fell
Joseph L. Miller
and eleven men were wounded
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Peach Orchard, Wheatfield Road Gettysburg
F. Penna. Light Artillery
Fron June 3, 1863 to March 25, 1864,
Mustered in Oct. 8. 1861
Re-enlisted Feb. 27. 1864
Mustered out June 26. 1865
Organized at Williamsport December 7, 1861. Joined Banks on Upper Potomac December 15, 1861. Attached to Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. Artillery, 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps, and Dept. of the Shenandoah to June, 1862. Artillery, 2nd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. Artillery, 2nd Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1863. 4th Volunteer Brigade, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Potomac, to October, 1863. Artillery Brigade, 2nd Army Corps, to March, 1864. Camp Barry, Defenses of Washington, 22nd Corps, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Corps, to July, 1864. Reserve Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to January, 1865. 1st Separate Brigade, 3rd Division, West Virginia, to March, 1865. Artillery Reserve, Army of the Shenandoah, to April, 1865. 3rd Brigade, Hardins' Division, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.--Duty on the Upper Potomac until February, 1862. Advance on Winchester March 1-12. Occupation of Winchester March 12. Pursuit of Jackson up the Valley March 24-April 27. Operations in the Shenandoah Valley May 15-June 17. Action at Newtown and Middletown May 24. Retreat to Williamsport May 24-26. Battle of Winchester May 25. Reconnaissance to Front Royal June 29-30. Luray June 30. At Front Royal until August. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Sulphur Springs August 24. Bull Run August 30. Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September. Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 19, and duty there until December. Near Snickersville November 8. Reconnaissance to Rippon November 9. Reconnaissance to Winchester December 2-6. March to Fredericksburg December 12-16. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Stafford Court House until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign November 9-22. Auburn and Bristoe October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Morton's Ford February 6-7. Duty at Camp Barry, Washington, D.C., and in the Defenses of Washington south of the Potomac until July. Duty at Harper's Ferry, W. Va., until April, 1865, and in the Defenses of Washington until June, 1865. Mustered out June 26, 1865.
Battery lost during service 2 Officers and 8 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 14 Enlisted men by disease. Total 24.
This battery was recruited at Pittsburg, in October, 1861, and
organized at Williamsport, Maryland, to serve for three years, on the 7th of
December, with the following officers: Robert B. Hampton, Captain; James P.
Fleming and Nathaniel Irish, First Lieutenants; Alfred N. Harbours, Second
Soon after its organization, it was ordered to join the forces on the Upper Potomac, under command of Major General Banks. It arrived at the front on the 15th, and three days thereafter, was engaged with the enemy at Dam No. 5, and again on the 4th, 5th, and 6th of January, 1862,at Hancock, Maryland. On the 26th of February, it first crossed the Potomac, and with the forces of Banks, pushed the enemy, under Stonewall Jackson, as far as Edinburg, where, from the 5th to the 18th of April, brisk skirmishing was kept up. Finally, the enemy was driven again as far as Cross Keys, where the battery was engaged on the 26th. Banks was, however, obliged to retire before a superior force, but contested the ground stubbornly, as he went back, fighting at Middletown on the 24th, and at Winchester on the 25th, the battery in both engagements, rendering efficient service, and when the ground could be no longer held covered the retreat to the Potomac. Jackson retreated precipitately as the Union forces gathered in the Valley to meet him, and the battery again advanced as far as Front Royal, where it remained until the middle of August. Lieutenant Joseph L. Miller here joined it with fifty men and two guns, it having been to this time only a four gun battery. It then proceeded with Banks' army to meet the enemy upon the Rappahannock, the Peninsula campaign having terminated disastrously, and the legions of Lee swarming upon the Union front. Pope, who had been assigned to chief command, battled manfully to check and repel the rebel advance; but overborne by superior numbers, he was compelled to fall back towards Washington. At Freeman's Ford on the 22d, at White Sulphur Springs on the 23dand 24th, at Waterloo on the 25th, in the fierce struggle at Bull Run on the29th and 30th, at Chantilly on the 1st of September, and at Falls Church on the 2d, the battery was engaged, and gained the commendation of its superior officers for its efficiency. Pope's disasters had scarcely ended, when the campaign in Maryland opened, and the battery, crossing the Potomac at Chain Bridge, was hurried forward to South Mountain, where, on the 14th, it participated in the battle which swept the enemy from the fastnesses of that mountain chain, and on the16th and 17th, bore a prominent part in the battle of Antietam. After the enemy had been driven from Maryland, the battery was assigned to duty with the Twelfth Corps, commanded by General Slocum, and was stationed at Harper's Ferry, the corps remaining there, while the rest of the army moved on to the Rappahannock. In the affairs at Charlestown on the 9th of November, and at Winchester on the 2d of December, under General Geary, it was briskly engaged, and when, on the 10th, Slocum's Corps was put in motion to join Burnside at Fredericksburg, it made a forced march to gain the battlefield; but owing to the state of the roads, and the destruction of bridges by swollen streams, it failed to reach the ground in time for the engagement. The corps was, accordingly posted to hold the line from Fairfax Court House to Acquia Creek, where it remained during the winter. On the 27th of April, 1863, the battery started on the march for Chancellorsville, and with the corps engaged the enemy on the centre of the line in the fighting of the 1st, 2d, and 3d of May. On the evening of the 2d, Stonewall Jackson attacked and crushed the right wing of the army, held by the Eleventh Corps. The Twelfth, and detachments of the Third Corps stood next, and received the shock with undaunted courage and constancy, checking the mad onset of the foe, and turning back his victorious columns, Jackson himself, receiving a mortal wound. But on the morning of the 3d, the enemy renewed his attack with redoubled fury, and in the fierce struggle which prevailed, in which the artillery played a most prominent part, Captain Hampton was killed, and the battery sustained severe losses. On the 5th, this battery, together with Knap's and Thompson's, covered the retreat of the army to the north bank of the Rappahannock. On the 20th of May, the battery having previously been consolidated with battery C, Captain Thompson, was assigned to the reserve artillery of the Army of the Potomac, led by General R. O. Tyler, and about the middle of June, commenced the march towards Pennsylvania.
On the 2d of July, at Gettysburg, it went into position in the Peach Orchard, on the right of the position held by Sickles' Corps, and held it until the line was forced to fall back. On the 3d of July, it was posted with the Second Corps, holding the left centre of the line, and with that corps was engaged on the afternoon of that day, in the fierce struggle, which finally decided the battle. In this engagement, Lieutenant Miller received a mortal wound, and died on the 9th of August following. When the army returned to Virginia, the battery moved with the columns, crossing the Potomac at Berlin, and advancing to Culpepper Court House. On the 11th of October, it commenced falling back towards Centreville Heights, the enemy threatening to turn the right flank of the army; but on the 15th, again advanced, and engaged the enemy at Blackburn's Ford. Towards the close of November, the army was put in motion for a vigorous campaign. The battery crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, and the Rapidan at Germania Ford, and on the 27th and 28th, was engaged at Mine Run, and on the 29th and 30th, at White Hall Church. Upon the abandonment of the campaign, it re-crossed the Rapidan at Gold Mine Ford, and went into winter-quarters at Brandy Station. On the 5th of February, 1864, it joined in the movement to Morton's Ford, on the Rapidan, and on the 6th was engaged. The purpose of the demonstration having been effected, it returned to camp. Lieutenant Irish had been promoted to Captain in May preceding, and fresh recruits having been received, battery F was subsequently re-organized. Before the opening of the spring campaign, the battery was ordered to Camp Barry, at Washington, to re-organize and re-fit, and on the 14th of May, relieved forces of heavy artillery on duty in the defenses of Washington.
On the 4th of July, the battery was ordered to Harper's Ferry, and moved thither by forced marches. Upon its arrival, it was posted on Maryland Heights, in conjunction with forces assigned to the defense of that position. Until December, it was employed in the various movements involved in driving the enemy from the Valley, and in holding the line of the Potomac. It then went into winter-quarters on Maryland Heights, where, at the expiration of their term of service, the original members, with the exception of veterans, were mustered out. About the middle of April, 1865, the veterans, with the recruits, were ordered to duty in the defenses of Washington, where they continued on duty, until the 26th of June, 1865, when they likewise were mustered out.
Organized at Harrisburg August 22, 1862. Garrison duty at Fort Delaware entire term. Mustered out June 15, 1865.
Lost 9 by disease.
The troops composing this battery, were principally recruited in
Allegheny county, and were organized on the 21st of August, 1862, with the
John Jay Young, Captain
Alfred Kerr, First Lieutenant
George W. Ahl, First Lieutenants
Joseph C. Young, Second Lieutenant
John G. M'Connell, Jr., Second Lieutenant
Soon after its organization, it was ordered to Fort Delaware, which was, during the war, little more than a prison post. It was here thoroughly drilled in infantry and artillery service. The enlisted men were mostly young, and of more than ordinary talent and education, and the commandant of the fort soon had a majority of officers and men detailed, or sent away on special duty. A score or more of its members became officers in other organizations, some of whom fell in battle. Repeated applications were made to the Secretary of War by Captain Young, to have the battery ordered to the front; but the representations of the commandant, that it could not be spared from duty at the fort, defeated every application. Its duty as a battery, was consequently little varied, and it was mustered out of service on the 18th of June, 1865.
Organized at Pittsburg October 21, 1862. Attached to Defenses of Washington, D.C., to December, 1862. Camp Barry Defenses of Washington, D.C., to March. 1863. Slough's Command, Garrison of Alexandria, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to January, 1865. Camp Barry. 22nd Corps, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.----Garrison duty in the Defenses of Washington entire term. Mustered out June, 1865.
Lost 7 by disease.
This Battery was recruited at Pittsburg and vicinity, and was
organized on the 30th of September, 1862, with the following officers:
John I. Nevin, Captain
Edwin H. Kevin, Jr., Lieutenant
Theodore M. Finlay, First Lieutenant
John N. Brown, Second Lieutenant
John C. Klett, Jr., Second Lieutenant
Immediately after its organization, it was ordered to Hagerstown, Maryland, the army at this time reposing on the left bank of the Potomac, having just previous fought and driven the enemy at Antietam. It was assigned to General Morell's command, and served with him until December. It was then ordered to Camp Barry, in the District of Columbia-artillery headquarters-where it went into camp for the winter. On the 14th of February, 1863, Captain Nevin, and Lieutenants Klett and Brown, resigned, and William Borrowe, of the Second United States Artillery, was commissioned Captain.
Early in the spring, the Battery was ordered to report to General J. P. Slough, in command at Alexandria, and for a period of nearly two years, it was actively employed in provost duty, rendering efficient service against the commands of Stuart and Moseby.
In January, 1865, it was ordered to return to Camp Barry, and shortly after its transfer, Captain Borrowe was succeeded in command by Lieutenant Nevin, who was thereupon promoted to Captain. Little duty of consequence was required of it here, and early in June, it was ordered to Pittsburg, where, on the 18th, it was mustered out of service.
Roster (3 Years)
Roster (6 Months)
Organized at Philadelphia and Harrisburg December 31, 1863, to January 7, 1864. Attached to Camp Barry, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Corps, to July, 1864. 3rd Brigade, DeRussy's Division, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade, DeRussy's Division, to June, 1865. Garrison duty in Defenses of Washington south of the Potomac entire term. Mustered out June 23, 1865.
The troops composing this battery, were from the city and county of
Lancaster, with the exception of about twenty, who were from Susquehanna county,
and were organized at Harrisburg, on the last day of June, 1863, for a period of
six months, under command of Robert J. Nevin. Soon after the retirement of the
enemy from the neighborhood of Harrisburg, and while riots were prevailing in
New York, the battery was ordered to Philadelphia. It was armed with four
twelve-pound light, and two three-inch ordnance guns.
In November, it was transferred to West Virginia, where it remained until January, 1864, when it was ordered back to Harrisburg, and on the 7th, was mustered out. A considerable number of the men re-enlisted for a term of three years, and the company was rapidly recruited to maximum strength. It was mustered into service under Captain Nevin, on the 7th, and after spending some time in Philadelphia, where recruits were received and drilled, it was transferred to Washington. Its mounted equipment was here completed, and it was armed with six three-inch rifled guns.
At the time of Early's invasion of Maryland and his descent upon Washington, it was ordered into the defenses of the city, and here it continued on duty until the end of the war, garrisoning successively forts Worth and Whipple. It was mustered out of service at Philadelphia, on the 23d of June, 1865.
Field & Staff
Organized at Pittsburg May and June, 1864. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to 3rd Brigade, Hardin's Division, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, June, 1864. 1st Brigade, Hardin's Division, 22nd Corps, to September, 1864. Garrison duty in the Defenses of Washington north of the Potomac, entire term. Mustered out September 6, 1864.
Organized at Philadelphia August 13, 1862. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to Casey's Provisional Brigade, Military District of Washington, to October, 1862. Casey's Division, Military District of Washington, to February, 1863. Casey's Division, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to April, 1863. Abercrombie's Division, 22nd Corps, to June, 1863. Camp Barry, 22nd Corps. to July, 1863. Artillery Brigade, 3rd Army Corps, Army Potomac, July, 1863. Maryland Heights Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to August, 1863. Garrison duty in the Defenses of Washington, D.C., until July, 1863. Joined Army Potomac and pursuit of Lee July. Action at Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. Moved to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., and duty there until August. Mustered out August 20, 1863.
Organized at Harrisburg June and July, 1863. Ordered to Philadelphia July, 1863, and duty there until November, 1863. Ordered to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., and duty there until January, 1864. Ordered to Harrisburg and mustered out January 7, 1864.
Roster Co. C
Organized at Philadelphia August 9, 1862. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Attached to Whipple's Command, Military District of Washington, to November, 1862. Harper's Ferry, W. Va., to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to June, 1863. Unattached, Dept. of West Virginia, to December, 1863. Unattached, 1st Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to April, 1864. Reserve Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to June, 1865. Engaged in Engineer operations in the Defenses of Washington to November, 1862, and at Harper's Ferry, W. Va., until muster out, June 20, 1865.