Edward F. Parker
Organized at Pittsburgh and Harrisburg October to December, 1862. Left State for Washington, D.C., December 8, 1862. Attached to Wyndham's Cavalry Brigade, Defenses of Washington, to February, 1863. Price's Independent Cavalry Brigade, 22nd Corps, Dept. of Washington, to April, 1863. 3rd Brigade, Stahel's Cavalry Division, 22nd Corps, to June, 1863. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army Potomac, to August, 1864, and Army Shenandoah to February, 1865. Cavalry Brigade, Army Shenandoah, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.--Duty at Bladensburg and Germantown and in the Defenses of Washington until June, 1863. Skirmishes at Chantilly, Va., February 10 and 26, 1863. Scout from Centreville to Falmouth, Va., February 27-28. Left Fairfax C. H. with Stahel's Division to join Army Potomac, June 25, 1863. Hanover, Pa., June 30. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Hunterstown July 2. Monterey Gap July 4. Smithburg, Md., July 5. Williamsport July 6. Hagerstown July 6. Boonsboro July 8. Hagerstown July 11-13. Falling Water July 14. Battle Mountain near Newby's Cross Roads July 24. Expedition to Port Conway September 1-3. Lamb's Creek September 1. Advance to the Rapidan September 13-17. Culpeper C. H. and Brandy Station September 13. Rapidan Station September 13-14. Reconnaissance across the Rapidan September 21-23. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. James City and Bethesda Church October 10. Near Culpeper October 11. Near Warrenton and Brandy Station October 11. Gainesville October 14. Groveton October 17-18. Gainesville, New Baltimore, Buckland's Mills and Haymarket October 19. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. (Cos. "B," "H" at Headquarters, 5th Corps, and at Rappahannock Station November 7. Rejoined Regiment November 19.) Germania Ford November 18. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Morton's Ford November 26. Near Ely's Ford January 13, 1864. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7. Kilpatrick's Raid on Richmond February 28-March 4. Fortifications of Richmond March 1. Rapidan Campaign May-June. Wilderness May 5-7. Craig's Meeting House May 5. Todd's Tavern May 5-6. Alsop's Farm May 8. Sheridan's Raid to James River May 9-24. North Anna River May 9-10. Ground Squirrel Church and Yellow Tavern May 11. Brook's Church or Richmond fortifications May 12. Strawberry Hills May 12. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Demonstration on Little River May 27. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Hanover C. H. May 30. Mechump's Creek May 31. Cold Harbor May 31-June 1. Totopotomoy and Gaines' Mill June 2. Salem Church and Haw's Shop June 2. Haw's Shop June 3. Old Church June 10. Bethesda Church June 11. Long Bridge June 12. Smith's Store near St. Mary's Church June 15. Siege of Petersburg June to August. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. (Co. "B" at Headquarters, 6th Corps, June 25-July 16.) White Oak Swamp July 14. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28. Winchester August 15 and 17. Near Charlestown August 21-22. Limestone Ridge September 1. Abraham's Creek near Winchester September 13. Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19. Near Cedarville September 20. Front Royal September 21. Milford September 22. Waynesboro September 29. Near Brock's Gap October 6. Tom's Brook October 8-9. Cedar Creek October 13. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Cedar Creek November 11. Newtown or Middletown November 12. Rude's Hill near Mt. Jackson November 22. Expedition to Lacy Springs December 19-22. Duty at and near Winchester until May, 1865. Scout to Edenburg March 17-19. At Cumberland, Md., to June. Consolidated with 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry June 24, 1865, to form 3rd Provisional Cavalry.
Regiment lost during service 5 Officers and 55 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 232 Enlisted men by disease. Total 294.The troops for this regiment were recruited in the city of Philapelphia, and in the counties of Greene, Crawford, Allegheny, Chester, Somerset, Westmoreland, Luzerne, Susquehanna, Dauphin, Washington, Fayette, Bucks, Lycoming, Indiana, and Cumberland, during the fall and winter of 1862. They rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, where a partial organization was effected, and horses were furnished, but without equipments. On the 8th of December, the command moved to a camp at Bladensburg, Maryland, near Washington. Here it was partially armed and equipped, and its drill commenced. On the ist of January, 1863, it went into Virginia, and encamped near the head of Long Bridge, and two weeks later proceeded to Germantown, two miles from Fairfiax Court House, on the Little River Turnpike. About the 1st of February, companies L, and M, which had hitherto been wanting for a full complement, were added, and the organization was completed with the following field officers:
It was brigaded with the Fifth New York, and First Vermont Cavalry, under command of Colonel Percy Wyndham, and was immediately placed on duty, picketing the long line covering the defenses of Washington on the Virginia shore, and scouting on its front. This was an enemy's country, the stamping ground of Moseby and his guerrillas, and was extremely difficult duty, veterans, towards the close of the war, often declaring that they had rather go to duty on the picket line in face of Lee's army, than on this ground. For this perilous duty, the Eighteenth was armed with only a condemned sabre. The character of the enemy which it was called to meet, can be gathered by the following extract from an officer's diary:
- Timothy M. Bryan, Jr., Colonel;
- James Gowan, Lieutenant Colonel;
- Joseph Gilmore, Major
- William B. Darlington, Major
- Henry B. Van Voorhis, Major
The arms of the Eighteenth were not suited to Moseby's wants, and on one occasion, after having captured a squad, and finding nothing but the old worthless sabres, he paroled the men, and sent them back to Lieutenant Colonel Gowan, with a note, requesting him to arm his men better, for, armed as they were, it did not pay to capture them. On the 1st of March, Lieutenant Colonel Gowan was honorably discharged. and Captain William P. Brinton, of the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry, was promoted to succeed him. During the five months of duty here, the regiment lost three killed and about fifty captured.
"They were citizens by day, and soldiers by night. They would come within the Union lines and learn the disposition of our pickets, and then with sufficient force, surround and capture an out-post by night. When pursued, they scattered to their homes, and were citizens again. If arrested and sent to Washington, they took the oath of allegiance and were released. Some of our forces went to a house near Aldie, and were told by the lady of the house that her husband was very sick, and could not be seen; but they insisted, and actually found the gentlemen in bed with his boots and spurs on. They did not pretend to fight in the open field. Colonel Moseby said to a Union officer in Richmond, in 1864, that fighting was not his business; that he cared nothing for taking prisoners; he only wanted horses, arms, and equipments, to sell to the Confederate authorities."
Early in the spring, the brigade was associated with a brigade of Michigan troops, under General Custer, forming a division, which was commanded by Brigadier General Julius Stahel, and was employed in guarding the gaps of the Blue Ridge against incursions of the enemy. Just before startilg on the Gettysburg campaign, Smith's carbines, which had been issued to the regiment, were exchanged for Burnside carbines.
On the 25th of June, Stahel's command left camp at Fairfax Court House, and crossing the Potomac on the following day, proceeded by Frederick to Middletown, for the purpose of watching the movements of the enemy, who was already passing up the valley on the opposite side of South Mountain. At this juncture, General Stahel was relieved by General Kilpatrick, and the division became the Third of the cavalry corps of the army of the Potomac. The Second New York, known as the Harris Light, was attached to the First Brigade, to the command of which Colonel Farnsworth succeeded.
Kilpatrick reached Littlestown on the 29th, and Hanover, Pennsylvania, on the 30th, being in search of the rebel General Stuart, who, since his defeat at Upperville, had been separated from the rebel army, and was known to be moving through Pennsylvania. The Eighteenth was this day of the rear guard of Kilpatrick's column, and while halting in the streets of Hanover, was suddenly attacked by the head of Stuart's column, which was moving on a road nearly parallel to that on which Kilpatrick had just passed. The Eighteenth was thrown into momentary confusion, and was driven through the town before it could turn and face the foe; but soon rallying, delivered a countercharge, in conjunction with the Fifth New York, and rapidly drove the enemy back to the cover of his artillery, which was immediately opened. The roar of his guns brought Kilpatrick to the rescue, who had already started upon the march. He formed his line of battle on the hills south of the town, while the enemy held the heights to the north, the Eighteenth occupying the town, and barricading the streets. Artillery firing and skirmishing was kept up, until dark, when the enemy retired, being prevented by this interposition from joining Lee until after the battle of Gettysburg, where his presence was much needed, and where his absence was so greatly deplored by the rebel chieftain. The Eighteenth lost four killed and a number wounded in the first charge.
On the 1st of July, Kilpatrick moved on to Berlin, the cannonading at Gettysburg being faintly heard. On the 2d, he returned through Abbottstown and New Oxford, to the rear of the enemy's left wing, where the rebel cavalry charged, but was handsomely repulsed by Custer's Brigade, a brisk cannonade being kept up until dark. At evening the brigade, with Kilpatrick, moved by the rear of the Union lines to the extreme left of the field, beyond Round Top, where it struck the enemy's right wing, and was hotly engaged during the entire day. The surface of the country was here rough, and unfavorable for the handling of cavalry, but towards evening Kilpatrick, who was ever eager to strike when an opportunity presented, ordered the First Brigade to charge. It was led by Colonel Farnsworth, who succeeded in driving the enemy in upon his main line, but was unable to dislodge his infantry from its impregnable position behind stone walls, and rocky, wooded heights. Colonel Farnsworth, a gallant officer, was killed. The Eighteenth lost several wounded, but none killed. The cannonading upon the centre of the two armies, which had been heavy beyond example, died away, and the rain poured down in torrents as the brigade retired.
Kilpatrick moved early on the morning of the 4th towards Maryland, passing through Emmittsburg, and by the flank of Lee's army, striking Ewell's wagon train at midnight, near Monterey Springs, as it was crossing South Mountain. He immediately charged, scattering the train guard, captured two pieces of artillery, a thousand prisoners, and two hundred wagons and ambulances. The head of the rebel army, which was now in full retreat, was following close upon his path, and Kilpatrick was obliged to drive at a break-neck speed down the narrow mountain road, to escape with his captures, some of the wagons and ambulances loaded with the severely wounded, being overturned, and plunged with their stuffering freight headlong into the gorge below. At daylight, the foot of the mountain was reached, and the wagons, which were still-upon wheels, were driven into park at Smithfield, and burned.
During the day, the enemy's cavalry made its appearance in front and rear, but Kilpatrick held him at bay until evening, when, under cover of darkness, he moved with his prisoners to Boonesboro, and delivered them to General French's command of infantry. Early in the day the brigade moved to Hagerstown, where the head of the enemy's column was met. Immediately deploying column, he ordered a charge by two battalions of the Eighteenth, commanded by Captains William C. Lindsey, and John W. Phillips, and led by Lieutenant Colonel William P. Brinton, in command of the regiment, and Captain Ulrich Dahlgren, acting as volunteer aid to the commanding general. The enemy was driven through the town, and the Colonel of the Tenth Virginia Cavalry was taken prisoner; but the squadrons lost heavily, in consequence of having to face, with sabres, in a narrow street, an enemy who was using pistols. Captain Dahlgren lost a leg. Captain Lindsey was killed. The color-bearer of company A was shot dead, but fell on his face, and died holding fast to the standard. Sergeant Joseph Brown, of company B, was shot by a woman, who fired from a window after he had passed.
The town was occupied during the day by troops of both the contending parties, and skirmishing and artillery firing was kept up. In the afternoon the enemy advanced his infantry, which had arrived in large force. A squadron of the Eighteenth, companies L, and A, was ordered to charge into the town to test the enemy's strength. Gallantly this devoted band responded, and dashed into the heart of the place; but few of its number returned, as the enemy had occupied the cross-streets, and now closed in behind them. Kilpatrick was obliged to retire before the strong infantry columns, but sullenly, contesting every inch of ground until long after night-fall, the enemy making repeated charges upon his artillery, and being as often repulsed. The object of this demonstration was to delay the enemy until Buford could destroy the pontoon bridge at Williamsport.
On the 8th, Stuart's Cavalry appeared in force at Boonesboro, whither the division had gone, where a sharp skirmish ensued, in which the rebel leader was driven several miles. During the three succeeding days, Meade and Lee were maneuvering and fortifying, and the cavalry rested. On the 12th, the division occupied Hagerstown, driving in the enemy's skirmishers.
On the 14th, Kilpatrick pushed forward to Williamsport, and thence to Falling Watters, where the main body of the enemy, during the previous night, had crossed. A brigade, which had been left as guard on the right bank, was charged, and about five hundred prisoners, with two pieces of artillery, were captured. About the middle of the month the division crossed the Potomac, and during the fall and early winter, the regiment was actively engaged in scouting and skirmishing, meeting the enemy at Brandy Station, and at Culpepper, on the 18th of September; on the 11th of October, again near Brandy Station, where the Eighteenth charged a force of the enemy following from Culpepper, and lost its commander, Major Van Voorhis, three lieutenants, and fifty men by capture; on the 13th, at Buckland Mills and New Baltimore; on the 18th of November, in a scout across the Rapidan, where the camp equipage, regimental colors, and camp guard, including a number of officers and men, were captured and Lieutenant Roseberry Sellers was killed, and on the 6th of December, went into winter-quarters near Stevensburg.
During this campaign, much hard marching and severe fighting were done by the cavalry, but were fruitless in general results. In the engagement at Culpepper Court House, on the 13th of September, Lieutenant David T. M'AKay was taken prisoner, and for fifteen months was confined in rebel prisons. Major Van Voorhis was wounded in the engagement in which he was captured, but managed to make his escape. The disaster of the 18th of November, was no fault of officers or men of the Eighteenth, as it was attacked by overpowering numbers when separated from any supporting force; Captain Marshall S. Kingsland, who was in command, and acted with great gallantry, received a severe wound.
On the evening of February 28th, 1864, the regiment was called out of winter-quarters to accompany Kilpatrick on his daring raid upon the rebel capital, for the release of Union prisoners confined there, and enduring the torments of a most fiendish captivity. For two weeks it was upon the march, suffering from inclement weather, and frequent skirmishing and fighting. The object of the campaign was not effected, and the gallant Dahlgren, who led one division, was killed. After the return of the division, General Wilson succeeded Kilpatrick, and General M'Intosh was assigned to the command of the brigade, which was now composed of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Fifth, and Second New York, Second Ohio, and First Connecticut regiments.
In the general movement of the army, which commenced on the 4th of May, the Eighteenth led the advance from Germania Ford to Wilderness Tavern, and pushing thence in the direction of Orange Court House, drove the enemy back to the neighborhood of Mine Run, where it bivouacked for the night. On the following morning it moved to the left of the Plank Road and met the advance of the enemy under General tosser, a severe battle ensuing, which resulted in driving him back upon his infantry supports, which were just then coming up the road in his rear, and which proved to be Longstreet's Corps At four in the afternoon the enemy began to withdraw from the front of the Union cavalry and to move by its left on a road which intersected that upon which the cavalry had advanced, and the only avenue open for its escape.
General Wilson immediately ordered the division to fall back, with the exception of the Eighteenth, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Brinton, which he directed to hold its ground, keeping up a show of strength, for one-half hour, and then re-join the column if possible. That half hour seemed a long one those gallant men, who stood in presence of an entire corps of the rebel army, and could see by the clouds of dust which marked its course that their only way of escape was being rapidly approached. Until the time had fully elapsed they remained at their posts, and when the signal was given to retire, moved at double-quick, in hope of passing the threatened point before it was reached by the enemy. In this they were disappointed; for when the advance, under Major Darlington, approached the junction, he found the enemy in strong force, dismounted and holding all the approaches. The Major immediately charged with his battalion, but was driven back by a, furious, direct and cross fire from a foe hidden behind fences. The Second Battalion, under Major Phillips, was soon upon the ground, and also made a most gallant charge, but was in like manner repulsed. At this moment Major Darlington fell severely wounded. His wound was at the, time supposed to be mortal, and he was left in the enemy's hands. He however survived, with the loss of a leg, and was rescued by Sheridan several days after, while on the way to Richmond with other Union prisoners. Some confusion ensued as the battalions retired from these charges, and while they were being re-formed, the enemy opened at. very short range with canister, The position of the regiment was a perilous one. In front lay the enemy in strong position; the road on the right was filled with his infantry; the battery vomited forth its surcharged missiles on the left; and to the rear was a pine thicket, apparently impassable for cavalry.
The enemy, seeing that the regiment was completely cut off; commenced crossing to the road on which it had retreated, and forming in its rear. Standing alone against overwhelming numbers, its capture seemed inevitable. The only hope of escape was through the pines and at a given signal the regiment plunged into the thicket, and by the most strenuous exertions succeeded in forging its way through, and across a swamp in its rear, gaining time open woods, where it could hold the enemy in check, with but the loss of one officer and thirty-nine men in killed, wounded, and captured.
At evening it joined the division in camp, near Old Wilderness Tavern, where it was received with marks of rejoicing, the eintire regiment having been reported as capturtd. From the division headquarters a bottle of wine was sent to Colonel Brinton, on, which was this inscription: "To the Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, which knows how to fight into and how to fight out of a hard place."
On the 7th the regiment moved to the east and encamped near the out-works. of Fredericksbrurg, and on the following day proceeded to, Spottsylvania Court House, where the Eighteenth charged into the place, then held by the enemy's dismounted cavalry, capturing fifty prisoners and driving his cavalry back upon his advancing infantry. On the 9th the regiment, with the main body of Sheridan's command, moved around the right flank of Lee's army, and struck boldly out towards Richlmond. In this exciting and difficult march, where, the enemy sprung up on all sides, and greatly harassed and impeded its course, the regiment participated being engaged on the 11th at Yellow Tavern, on the 12th at Richmond, and finally, on the 16th, reached Haxali's Landing, on the James, where supplies were obtained from the command of General Butler. After a few days rest, Sheridan returned and re-joined the main body of the army near the South Anna.
On the 31st the cavalry crossed the Pamunky and moved up towards Hanover Court House, which was found in possession of Generals Fitz Hugh Lee and Wyckham, who held all the roads leading thereto. The outposts were immediately driven in, but finding the main body securely posted behind barricades of rails, a halt was ordered until evening, when the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, supported by the Second Ohio, was ordered to charge and clear the town. At twilight the charge was made, dismounted, and though opposed by vastly superior numbers, well covered by breast-works, was driven in utter rout and confusion, and many prisoners were taken. Lieutenant Colonel Brinton and Major Phillips, who led the charge, were both slightly, and Captains M. S. Kingsland and David Hamilton severely wounded.
Early on the following morning the command started in pursuit of the foe, but at Ashland he was met in overpowering numbers and it was compelled to fall back again to Hanover, whence it marched to Old Church Tavern, on the road from Richmond to White House, where it joined the main body of the army. The regiment was immediately placed on picket and scout duty, in which it was engaged until the movement commenced for the crossing of the James. As the army moved over the Peninsula the Eighteenth was of the rear guard, and was subjected to severe duty. At St. Mary's Church, on the 15th of June, the regiment was hotly engaged with the enemy's infantry, holding him at bay for nearly five hours, and only retired in obedience to the orders of the commanding general. The loss in the engagement in killed, wounded, and missing, was thirty-three. Lieutenants Samuel H. Tresonthick and Samuel H. M'Cormick were mortally wounded.
On the 17th of June the regiment crossed the James and moved to the neighborhood of Prince George Court House. On the 23d General Wilson started with his division, with the exception of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania and Third New Jersey, on an expedition for the destruction of the railroads south of Richmond. Two days before he started these two regiments had been sent to report for duty to General Wright, commanding the Sixth Corps, which occupied a position on the extreme left of the army. They were employed in picketing a line of nearly five miles on Wright's left flank, involving much severe service.
On the 23d the Eighteenth, supported by a few hundred sharpshooters, drove the enemy from the Weldon Road, at Yellow House, and tore up a portion of the track, but was subsequently driven back to Wright's lines. For nearly a month it remained on duty here and then re-joined the division at Prince George Court House.
On the 7th of August, the regiment embarked at City Point to proceed to the Shenandoah Valley, whither two divisions of cavalry had been ordered. At Washington, the brigade was armed with Spencer repeating carbines. Upon reaching the Valley, active operations at once commenced, and on the 17th, the regiment was engaged at Winchester, holding in check the columns of Early, now pressing upon Sheridan, and three days later at Summit Station. At Charlestown the fighting was renewed, and again at Leetown, to the right of Charlestown, in each of which the regiment was at the front, and did good service.
On the 19th of September occurred the memorable battle of Winchester. At one o'clock on the morning of that day, the regiment broke camp, and moving up the Winchester Pike, crossed the Opequan at dawn, driving the enemy's pickets in upon a brigade of infantry lying behind slight earth-works, on an eminence easily defensible, and really the key to the enemy's entire position. With the Fifth and Second New York deployed as skirmishers, the Eighteenth was ordered to charge. The third battalion had the advance, and dashing forward, drove the enemy from his works, and into a wood beyond, from which it was in turn repulsed by a rapid fire. But at this juncture, the main body of the regiment came up, led by Colonel Brinton, and drove the enemy for half a mile, and, aided by the rest of the brigade, held this commanding position until Sheridan's infantry came to its relief. General M'Intosh, who led the brigade, was complimented by Sheridan for its gallantry and daring in this charge. Colonel Brinton, after having his horse twice shot, and his clothing riddled with bullets, finally fell into the enemy's hands. The loss in killed, wounded, and missing, was twenty-four.
The casualties, " says an officer, " were much greater than those mentioned above, but the names are now forgotten. Their unflinching bravery and noble self sacrifice is not, and I shall ever remember, with the liveliest emotions, the charge made by the Eighteenth on that eventful day, and how nobly the boys stood there on that hill side, in face of the enemy's infantry line, and re-formed, and charged again and again, until the position was taken."
After the hour's fight in the early morning, and when relieved by the Sixth Corps, the division moved to the left, where Sheridan's whole battle line was in full view. In the afternoon it participated in the general assault which drove the enemy in rout, in which General M'Intosh was wounded.
On the 20th, it moved through the Luray Valley, and at Front Royal came up with the enemy's cavalry, which was posted to dispute its progress. Major Phillips who led the Eighteenth, was ordered to force a passage, and drive the enemy from his works on the opposite bank. The Third Battalion, under Captain Britton, took the advance, and dismounting, cleared the barricades with which the road was obstructed, and boldly advanced upon the opposite bank, driving the enemy, and securing possession of his works. Pursuit was immediately given to the retreating foe, and on the 22d, the division came upon him, strongly posted across the narrow valley, which is here little more than a ravine. A sharp artillery duel ensued, but no advantage was gained.
On the following day, the main body of the enemy having been defeated, in the meantime, at Fisher's Hill, the force upon Wilson's front withdrew, and he pushed forward to New Market, where he met the main Union column, and drew scanty supplies, joining in the pursuit which was pushed as far as Waynesboro. Returning to Bridgewater, the division encamped, and when Sheridan fell back to Cedar Creek, it retired to Brock's Gap, where, on the night of the 6th of October, the Eighteenth, while on picket, was vigorously attacked, but succeeded in repelling the enemy, and inflicting serious loss. The regiment lost sixteen in killed and wounded.
On the 8th, the command moved towards Cedar Creek, the Eighteenth acting as rear guard, and suffering from frequent and furious attacks of the enemy. Major Phillips, who was in command, says: "In all the hard service which the regiment did, it had no harder day's work than that of the 8th day of October, 1864. It was one continued running fight." The loss was comparatively slight, being eight killed and wounded, and five captured. The enemy's loss was much greater, he being obliged to attack, and the repeating carbines of the regiment proving very destructive.
On the following day, the division faced the enemy and assumed the offensive, advancing over the ground on which the Eighteenth had fought so desperately the day before. The line was formed with the Eighteenth on the extreme right, resting along the slopes of the Allegheny Ridge. At the signal to advance, the line swept forward with resistless power, driving the enemy, under Rosser, in confusion, capturing all his artillery, six pieces, and his entire ambulance and wagon train. In the race for the captures, the Eighteenth was among the foremost, and at the moment when those in advance reached the first wagon, Lieutenant John R. Winters fell, mortally wounded, by the ball of a sharp-shooter concealed in the wood to the left of the road.
In the battle of Cedar Creek, on the 19th of October, the Eighteenth was engaged from early dawn until evening, when it participated with the brigade in a brilliant charge, which closed the struggle and swept from the enemy's grasp his guns and trains. This single brigade was accredited with the capture of forty-five pieces. The loss in the engagement was three killed and five wounded.
On the 12th of November the division again met the enemy's cavalry near Cedar Creek. The brigade charged and drove him three miles. The Second Brigade, which charged on a parallel road, was repulsed, and the enemy, following up, came in upon the Eighteenth unawares, capturing Major Phillips, Lieutenant Blough, and fifteen men. Soon after this the regiment went into winter-quarters near Harper's Ferry. It subsequently participated in the descent upon Waynesboro, whereby the remnants of Early's army were captured, and with the Fifth New York Cavalry, was detailed to conduct the prisoners taken, amounting to fifteen hundred, back to Winchester. On the way General Rosser repeatedly attacked, counting confidently on the release of the prisoners, but he was foiled in every attempt, and the prisoners were all safely delivered to the commanders at Winchester. This virtually closed the active campaigning of the regiment. It remained near Winchester, engaged in picketing and scouting, until after the fall of Richmond and the surrender of Lee.
Two expeditions were made up the valley for the purpose of receiving the paroles of returning rebel soldiers, and early in May it moved from Winchester to Cumberland, Maryland, where it encamped, and where, on the 24th of June, the regiment, with the exception of Company E, which was mustered out of service on the 14th, was consolidated with the Twenty-second Pennsylvania Cavalry, forming the Third Provisional Cavalry. The new regiment moved to Clarksburg, West Virginia, soon after the consolidation, and remained on duty there until the 31st of October, when it was mustered out.
Source for history & rosters: History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers 1861-1865; prepared in Compliance With Acts of the Legislature, by Samuel P. Bates, A Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Volume IV, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, State Printer. 1871.
Organized at Carlisle, Pa., November 30, 1861, for Headquarters and escort duty with Gen. Anderson in Kentucky. Retained at Headquarters of Gens. Sherman, Buell and Rosecrans, Commanding Army and Dept. of the Ohio and Cumberland, until March, 1863.
SERVICE.--Moved to Louisville, Ky., December 2-7, 1861. Duty there until February, 1862. Moved with Headquarters Army Ohio to Nashville, Tenn., February 24. March to Savannah, Tenn., to reinforce Army Tennessee March-April. Battle of Shiloh April 7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 12. Buell's Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-22. Springfield October 6. Battle of Perryville October 8. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 7, and duty there until December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Lavergne December 26-27. Wilkinson's Cross Roads December 29. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Overall's Creek December 31, 1862. Lavergne January 1, 1863. Lytle's Creek January 5. At Murfreesboro until March, 1863. Mustered out March 24, 1863.
Lost during service 1 killed and 5 by disease. Total 6.
Organized at Wheeling, W. Va., November 6, 1862. Attached to Railroad District, 8th Corps, Middle Dept., to March, 1863. 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 8th Corps, to June, 1863. Campbell's Brigade, Scammon's Division, West Virginia, to December, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, West Virginia, to February, 1864.
SERVICE.--Scout and guard duty in Railroad District, Middle Dept., and on Upper Potomac until February, 1864. Action near Moorefield, W. Va., April 6, 1863. Williamsport, Md., August 4. Burlington October 13. Descent upon Salem December 16. Jackson River, near Covington, December 19. Operations in Hampshire and Hardy Counties December 31, 1863-January 5, 1864. Medley January 29-30. Evacuation of Petersburg January 30. Burlington February 1. Consolidated with Ringgold Battalion February 9, 1864.
Organized at Allegheny City August 19, 1861. Attached to 1st Virginia Union Cavalry and transferred to 1st Maryland Cavalry as Company "L" January, 1862.
Tendered services to the Government April 15, 1861. Not at first accepted, but finally mustered in May 13,1861. Moved to Carlisle, Pa., May 29-30. Attached to Geo. H. Thomas' Command. Moved to Chambersburg May 31, and to Greencastle June 7. To Williamsport June 12. Advance to Falling Waters June 17. Action at Falling Waters July 2. Bunker Hill July 2. Occupation of Martinsburg July 3. Advance to Bunker Hill July 6. Bunker Hill July 15. Occupation of Charlestown July 17. Moved to Harper's Ferry July 21. To Sandy Hook August 3. Guard Kelly's and Antietam Fords and Charlestown Road. Mustered out August 17, 1861. Again tendered services May, 1862, and August, 1862. Not accepted. Tendered services June 16, 1863. Accepted June 18. Moved to Gettysburg, Pa., to observe enemy. Driven from South Mountain and Gettysburg June 26, and from York to Wrightsville June 27. Retreat to Columbia and duty there until July 4. Moved to Harrisburg. Relieved from duty July 31, 1863.
Organized at Reading July 30, 1861. Transferred to 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry as Company "L" November, 1861.
Organized at Washington, Pa., June 29, 1861. Ordered to West Virginia and attached to Army of Occupation, West Virginia, July to October, 1861. Cheat Mountain District to January, 1862. Lander's Division to March, 1862. Hatch's Cavalry Command, Banks' 5th Corps, to April, 1862. Railroad District, Mountain Dept., to July, 1862. Railroad District, 8th Corps, Middle Dept., to September, 1862.
SERVICE.--Campaign in West Virginia July 6-17. Rich Mountain July 11. Carrick's Ford July 13-14. Burlington September 2. Operations on Cheat Mountain September 11-17. Petersburg September 12. Romney, Hanging Rock, September 23. Romney September 23-25. Mill Creek Mills, Romney, October 26. Near Romney November 13. At Romney until January, 1862. Expedition to Blue's Gap January 6-7. Hanging Rock Pass January 7. Bloomery Furnace February 14. Advance on Winchester March 7-15. Strasburg March 18. Kernstown March 22. Battle of Winchester March 23. Columbia Furnace April 15. Two Churches and Rood's Hill April 17. Duty in Railroad District, West Virginia, until September. North River Mills August 15. Huttonsville August 18. Transferred to Ringgold Battalion September, 1862.
Organized at Allegheny City April 5, 1861. Entered 1st Virginia Union Cavalry and transferred to 1st Maryland Cavalry as Company "G" January, 1862.
Organized at Wheeling, W. Va., August 19, 1861. Attached to Army of Occupation, West Virginia, to November, 1861. Railroad District, Mountain Dept., West Virginia, to January, 1862. Lander's Division, West Virginia, to March, 1862. Hatch's Cavalry Command, Banks' 5th Corps, to April, 1862. Railroad District, Mountain Dept.. to July, 1862. Railroad District, 8th Corps, Middle Dept., to January, 1863. Romney, Defenses Upper Potomac, 8th Corps, to March, 1863. 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 8th Corps, to June, 1863. Campbell's Brigade, Scammon's Division, Dept. West Virginia, to December, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. West Virginia, to February, 1864.
SERVICE.---Greenbrier River October 3-4, 1861. Expedition to Blue's Gap January 6-7, 1862. Hanging Rock Pass, Blue's Gap, January 7. Advance on Winchester March 7-15. Strasburg March 18. Battle of Winchester March 23. Columbia Furnace April 16. Two Churches and Rood's Hill April 17. Guard and scout duty in Railroad District of West Virginia and Defenses of the Upper Potomac until February, 1864. Actions at North River Mills August 15, 1862. Wire Bridge August 16. Moorefield August 23. Glenville September 30. South Branch Potomac, Moorefield, November 9. Romney December 1. Green Springs Run March 7, 1863. Williamsport, Md., July 8. Fairview July 9. Hedgesville and Martinsburg July 18-19. Whitehall July 22. Burlington August 4. Descent upon Salem December 16. Jackson River, near Covington, December 19. Petersburg January 10, 1864. Operations in Hampshire and Hardy Counties January 27-February 7. Moorefield February 4. Consolidated with Ringgold Battalion February 9, 1864.