DeTrobriand Avenue, the Wheatfield Gettysburg
Field & Staff---Unassigned
Organized at Harrisburg, Huntingdon and Philadelphia August 19, 1861. Left State for Hancock, Md., January 2, 1862. Defense of Hancock January 5. Attached to Tyler's Brigade, Landers' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, Shield's 2nd Division, Banks' 5th Corps and Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862. 4th Brigade, Shield's Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1562. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1865.
SERVICE.--At Cumberland and south branch of the Potomac guarding bridges of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad until February 6. Moved to Paw Paw Tunnel and duty there until March 7, 1862. Advance on Winchester March 7-15. Reconnaissance to Strasburg March 18-21. Battle of Winchester March 23. Pursuit of Jackson up the Valley March 24-April 27. Occupation of Mt. Jackson April 17. March to Fredericksburg May 12-21, and to Front Royal May 25-30. Near Front Royal May 31. Port Republic June 9. Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Fords of the Rappahannock August 21-23. Manassas August 23. Thoroughfare Gap August 28. Groveton August 29. Bull Run August 30. Duty at Arlington Heights, Defenses of Washington, Whipple's Command, until October. Moved to Pleasant Valley October 18, thence to Warrenton and Falmouth, Va., October 24-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. Burnside's 2nd Campaign, "Mud March," January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Pursuit of Lee July 5-24. Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. On line of the Rappahannock until October. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Auburn and Bristoe October 13-14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Kelly's Ford November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Duty near Brandy Station until May. Rapidan Campaign May 4-June 12. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Laurel Hill May 8; Spottsylvania May 8-12; Po River May 10; Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. Harris Farm May 19. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James at Deep Bottom July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30 (Reserve). Demonstration north of the James at Deep Bottom August 13-20. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Poplar Springs Church September 29-October 2. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Warren's Raid on Hicksford December 7-12. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. White Oak Road March 30-31. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge, Farmville, April 7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington, D.C., May 2-12. Grand Review May 23. Mustered out June 28, 1865.
Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 111 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 78 Enlisted men by disease. Total 196.
Early in the summer of 1861, J. Y. James, a citizen of Warren, received authority from the War Department to recruit a brigade, to consist of three regiments. Recruiting was commenced on the 23d of August, and on the 1st of September, a camp of rendezvous and instruction was organized near Huntingdon, in the central part of the State. About the 1st of December the troops occupying this camp, were transferred to Camp Curtin, the arrangement for a brigade was broken up, and independent regiments were organized from them. The companies of the One Hundred and Tenth were recruited in Philadelphia and the following counties:Organization of the regiment was completed by the selection of the following field officers:
- Company A - Blair County
- Company B - Huntingdon County
- Company C - Blair and Bedford Counties
- Company D - Huntingdon County
- Company E - Philadelphia
- Company F - Philadelphia
- Company G - Philadelphia
- Company H - Blair County
- Company I - Philadelphia
- Company K - Centre and Clearfield CountiesColonel Lewis had served in the militia, and had commanded the Eighteenth Regiment in the Three Months' Service.
- William D. Lewis, Jr., of Philadelphia, Colonel
- James Crowther, of Blair county, Lieutenant Colonel
- John C. Johnson, of Philadelphia, Major
On the 2d of January, 1862, the regiment left Camp Curtin, and proceeded by rail to Hagerstown, whence it made a forced march to Hancock, the enemy, under Stonewall Jackson, at that time threatening the place. Arms were distributed immediately after its arrival, at midnight on the 4th, and it reported for duty to General F. W. Lander, in command of the Union forces at that point.
On the morning of the 5th, the troops were formed to resist the crossing of the enemy, who had already approached the town on the opposite side of the Potomac, and was demonstrating in force. After considerable shelling, at long range, by Jackson, which was replied to by Lander, the former withdrew, and pushed on to Romney, that being his real objective. As soon as this was discovered, Lander made a corresponding movement to Cumberland, where the main body of his division concentrated. Here the One Hundred and Tenth was assigned to Tyler's Brigade.1
After remaining about three weeks, the regiment moved along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, to its crossing of the South Branch of the Potomac, and was employed in guarding the bridge until the 6th of February, when it moved to the Paw Paw Tunnel.
On the 2d of March, General Lander died, and was succeeded in command by General James Shields.
On the 8th of March the regiment broke camp at Paw Paw, and proceeded by rail to Martinsburg, whence it marched to Winchester. On the 18th, the division moved on a reconnoissance towards Strasburg, involving brisk skirmishing with Ashby's Cavalry, the enemy retreating and burning the bridges as he went. The command bivouacked at Strasburg, on the night of the 19th, and on the 20th returned to camp, north of Winchester.
Early on the morning of the 23d, the enemy under Jackson approached in force, and attacked Shields' advanced brigade, near the little village of Kernstown, four and a half miles south of Winchester. Shields promptly ordered his forces forward, Tyler's Brigade being assigned to the duty of attacking and turning the enemy's left flank, which had been thrown forward to a commanding position, screened by timber and by a stone wall. The One Hundred and Tenth occupied the extreme right of the line, and in the charge upon the enemy in his sheltered position, suffered severely. Says General Shields, in his official report: "Our batteries on the opposite ridge, though admirably managed by their experienced chief, Lieutenant Colonel Daum, were soon found insufficient to check, or even retard the advance of such a formidable body. At this stage of the combat, a messenger arrived from Colonel Kimball, informing me of the state of the field, and requesting direction as to the employment of infantry. I saw there was not a moment to lose, and gave positive orders that all disposable infantry should be immediately thrown forward on our right to carry the enemy's batteries, and to assail and turn his left flank, and hurl it back on the centre. Colonel Kimball carried out these orders with promptitude and ability He entrusted this movement to Tyler's splendid brigade, which, under its fearless leader, Colonel Tyler, marched forward with alacrity, and enthusiastic joy, to the performance of the most perilous duty of the day.
"The enemy's skirmishers were driven before it, and fell back upon the main body, strongly posted behind a high and solid stone wall, situated on an elevated ground. Here the struggle became desperate, and for a short time doubtful; but Tyler's brigade being soon joined on the left by portions of Sullivan's and Kimballs brigades, this united force dashed upon the enemy with a cheer and yell that rose high above the roar of battle, and though the rebels fought desperately, as their piles of dead attest, they were forced back through the woods by a fire as destructive as ever fell upon a retiring foe.The "loss in the regiment was thirteen killed, and thirty-nine wounded, out of three hundred engaged, the severe marching of the few preceding days having rendered many unfit to stand in the ranks. Lieutenant William Kochersperger was mortally wounded. The regiment was complimented, in a special order, for gallantry in this action.." Moore's Rebellion Record, Vol. IV, page 323, Does.
"Jackson, with his supposed invincible Stonewall Brigade, and the accompanying brigades, much to their mortification and discomfiture, were compelled to fall back in disorder upon their reserve. Here they took up a position for a final stand, and made an attempt, for a few minutes, to retrieve the fortunes of the day; but again rained down upon them the same close and destructive fire. Again cheer upon cheer rang in their ears. A few minutes only did they stand up against it, when they turned dismayed, and fled in disorder, leaving us in possession of the field, the killed and wounded, three hundred prisoners, two guns, four caissons, and a thousand stand of small arms. Night alone saved him from total destruction. "
On the morning succeeding the battle, the division advanced in pursuit of the retreating foe, as far as Harrisonburg. A few days later, the regiment was detached from the brigade, and for three weeks performed provost-guard duty at Winchester. At the end of that time it returned to Harrisonburg, and with the division moved for Fredericksburg, crossing the mountains into the Luray Valley, and thence across the Blue Ridge. In the passes of the Blue Ridge, Ashby's Cavalry hung upon the flanks of the column, greatly annoying it. On the 18th of May, in a brisk skirmish between the cavalry at Gaines' Cross Roads, company A was sent to the support of the Union forces, and succeeded in driving the enemy--losing two wounded. The balance of the regiment was immediately ordered up, and followed in pursuit for some distance, but failed to bring the enemy to bay.
Upon its arrival at Fredericksburg, the division was formed in four brigades, the One Hundred and Tenth being assigned to Colonel Carroll's Brigade, which became a part of M'Dowell's Corps.
Soon after arriving at Fredericksburg, M'Dowell's Corps was ordered back to the Shenandoah Valley, to the support of Banks and Fremont, in their encounters with Stonewall Jackson. On reaching the Luray Valley, Shields' Division was ordered down on the right bank of the river, to Port Republic, where the advance under Colonel Carroll met the advance of Jackson.
In the battle which ensued, the One Hundred and Tenth was posted on the left in a wood. with the Fifth and Sixty-sixth Ohio thrown forward as skirmishers. Seeing the right hard pressed, General Tyler ordered the regiment to the threatened point; but before reaching it the enemy were driven, and it returned again to its former position. By this time the enemy had come up in heavy force on the left, and outflanking it, compelled it to fall back losing some guns and prisoners. Unable to stand up against the entire force of Jackson's Army, General Tyler ordered a retreat, and the division fell hastily back to Front Royal. The loss of the regiment was considerable in killed and wounded, and especially so in prisoners. With the brigade, the regiment retired to Cloud's Mills, near Alexandria, where it remained within the defences of'Washington, for several weeks.
Upon the organization of the Army of Northern Virginia, under General Pope, the brigade, now a part of Ricketts' Division, of M'Dowells Corps, moved to Warrenton, where it remained until the close of July. It then moved forward to Culpepper Court House, near which, on the 9th of August, was fought the battle of Cedar Mountain, principally on the TUnion side by B3anks' Corps. Just before dusk, Ricketts' Division was ordered up to the support of Banks, and relieved a part of his troops on the field. The One Hundred and Tenth was placed in support of batteries-a heavy artillery fire being kept up for some time, resulting in some loss.
After the battle, Pope advanced to the Rapidan, but soon commenced falling back towards Washington, the enemy threatening his right and rear. At Thoroughfare Gap, on the evening of the 28th, Ricketts' Division was pitted against the entire strength of Longstreet's Corps, struggling to force a passage, and form junction with Jackson. By presenting a bold front and by hard fighting, the rebel chieftain was held in check by this one small division until after nightfall, when, finding that further resistance was vain, it fell back to Manassas, and on the afternoon of the 29th, arrived on the battle-ground of Bull Run.
Early on the following morning, Ricketts' Division was sent to support Heintzelman and Reno, on the right, but later in the day was brought to the left, where, with Schenck and Milroy, and the Pennsylvania Reserves, it maintained an unequal contest with great gallantry daring the afternoon; but at night, overborne by superior numbers, together with the entire army, it was forced from the field, and fell back to Centreville. The color bearer of the One Hundred and Tenth, finding his capture unavoidable, tore the colors from the staff, and concealed them about his person. He was taken prisoner, but adroitly managed to make his escape, and brought the flag safely into camp.
During the Antietam Campaign, the regiment was retained within the defences of Washington, and was posted at Arlington Heights. Joining the army near Harper's Ferry, the division, now under command of General Whipple, moved with the army to the Rappahannock. and on the 13th of December, participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, being with Franklin, on the left, where it sustained severe loss, Captain John R. Kooken being mortally wounded.
On the 20th of December, Colonel Lewis, on account of physical disability, resigned, and Lieutenant Colonel Crowther was promoted to Colonel, Major David M. Jones to Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain Isaac Rodgers to Major.
After the battle, the regiment returned to camp at Stoneman's Switch, where, with the exception of a week of severe service in the Mud March, it remained until the opening of the spring campaign. Having been much reduced in numbers, it was, at the beginning of the year, consolidated into six companies. In the movement upon Chancellorsville, Sickles' Corps at first supported Sedgwick in his feint upon the left, at Franklin's Crossing. Starting from camp on the 28th, the regiment lay with the corps on the left bank of the Rappahannock, opposite the pontoons, in readiness to cross, until the morning of the 30th, when it marched away to United States Ford, and crossing the river, joined Hooker at Chancellorsville. The corps was posted on the right centre, and during the day and night of the 2d, operated on the flank of Jackson's Corps, then moving upon the right wing of the Union army, held by the Eleventh Corps.
On the morning of the 3d, Sickles having fallen back to the Chancellor House, and posted his artillery with his infantry in support, the enemy attacked him there with the energy of desperation. Jackson had been mortally wounded, and his soldiers threw themselves upon the Union lines with reckless daring, to avenge his fall. Colonel Crowther was killed in this terrible encounter, and, nearly half of the effective strength of the regiment was either killed, wounded, or taken prisoners. General Whipple, in command of the division, was also killed. At the conclusion of the battle, the regiment returned to camp, near Stoneman's Switch.
Under command of Lieutenant Colonel Jones, the regiment moved on the Gettysburg campaign, about the middle of June, and on the evening,of the 1st of July, arrived on the field, taking position on the left, at that time forming part of De Trobriand's Brigade, of Birney's Division. In the formation of the Corps on the following morning, the regiment was posted at the front, across the brow of a rocky, wooded eminence to the left of, and nearly parallel with the Emmettsburg Pike. Skirmishing commenced early in the day, followed by a hot fire of artillery; but it was not until afternoon that the battle opened in earnest. Ward's Brigade was first struck, away towards Round Top, and two of De Trobriand's regiments, were hurried to his aid, leaving the latter with only a single line, without support. Soon the tide of battle, sweeping on towards the right, reached De Trobriand.2
With desperation, the rebel horde came on, but was again and again swept back by the steady fire of the One Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania, and the Fifth Michigan. Finally, with ammunition expended and ranks terribly shattered, it was relieved by Zook's Brigade, and retired to the line which had been originally selected for the Third Corps to occupy where it rested and entrenched, and where it remained until the close of the battle. Lieutenant Colonel Jones was severely wounded, losing a leg, and fully one-third of the regiment were either killed or wounded.
After the battle, the regiment marched through South Mountain with the division, proceeded on to Williamsport, crossing the Potomac at that point, and followed in pursuit of Lee, as far as the Rapidan.
The regiment went into camp at Warrenton, where it remained several weeks, and thence moved to Culpepper. On the 11th of October, it fell back with the army towards the Rappahannock, and after crossing, marched back to Brandy Station on a reconnoissance. On the night of the 12th, it took position at Freeman's Ford. The close and exciting race between Meade and Lee for the occupation of Centreville, now followed, in which the regiment participated.
On the 7th of November, it again moved forward to Catlett's Station, where it remained, until the railroad, which had been destroyed by the rebels, had been reconstructed to that point. It then moved on through Hanover Junction and Bealton, to Kelly's Ford. The Third Corps had the advance here, and De Trobriand's Brigade formed the attacking party. It advanced at double quick, charged the rifle-pits of the enemy, and captured over four hundred prisoners. In this attack, the regiment was thrown forward as skirmishers, and wading the river, drove the rebels from their pits. Moving forward, it reached Brandy Station on the 8th of November, and encountered there a force of rebel cavalry and light artillery, when considerable skirmishing ensued. On the 26th of November, with ten days' rations, it started on the Mine Run campaign, which proved abortive, and upon its abandonment, returned to Brandy Station, where it went into winter-quarters.
Early in January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted, thus preserving its identity,and securing for itself a veteran furlough. While absent, a large number of recruits were obtained, and upon its return was thoroughly drilled, preparatory to entering upon the Spring campaign. With the brigade, it was transferred to the Second Corps, commanded by General Hancock. Major Rodgers, who had, in October, been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, in place of Lieutenant Colonel Jones, discharged for wounds received at Gettysburg, was commissioned Colonel, Captain Enoch E. Lewis, Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain Isaac T. Hamilton, Major.
On the 4th of May, the regiment crossed the Rapidan, at Ely's Ford, and entered the region of the Wilderness, encamping on the old battle-field of Chancellorsville. On the morning of the 5th, the corps moved towards Shady Grove Church, and joined Warren's left; the One Hundred and Tenth being on the left of the line thus formed. On the 6th, the enemy was encountered and driven, but in turn, pushed back the Union forces to their intrenched line, where he was bloodily repulsed, and retired from the contest. On the 8th, the corps moved on towards Spottsylvania, and on the following morning was hotly engaged in the battle which there ensued, and also at the Po River. The regiment was afterward withdrawn from the south side of the river, and formed with the Fifth Corps. For six days it had been engaged in the hard fighting which had marked the course of the army, and had lost fully one-fourth of its effective strength.
On the morning of the 12th of May, the regiment participated in the charge of the corps upon the rebel works, when it captured an entire division of the rebel army. There was little firing, the movement being shielded by a dense fog. The first and a part of the second line was taken, the first held. Lieutenant John W. Manning was killed, and Colonel Rodgers, in command of the regiment, was mortally wounded.
In the remainder of the bloody march to Petersburg, the regiment, still forming part of Birney's veteran division, shared in the trials and triumphs of the way, being engaged at the North Anna, Totopotomy, Shady Grove Church, Cold Harbor, and at the Chickahominy, where, on the 3d of June, it assaulted the enemy's works with its usual energy and daring.
On the 14th it crossed the James, and marched to the assistance of the Eighteenth Corps, already engaged before Petersburg. With its corps it participated in the assault upon the enemy's works on the following morning, sustaining heavy losses; Lieutenant Colonel Lewis, in command of the regiment, having his arm shattered by a minnie ball, and Captain William A. Norton being mortally wounded. After two days of comparative quiet, the corps moved around to the south side of the city, for the purpose of possessing the Weldon Railroad, wherein the regiment was actively engaged.
On the 23d, the veterans and recruits of the One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment were consolidated with this regiment, the original term of service of the former having expired.
Late in July, the regiment moved with the corps to the north side of the James, for a feint in favor of the operations to follow the explosion of the mine, and became involved in some severe fighting near Deep Bottom. Returning to the south bank, it was moved up to the neighborhood of the mine, where it was held in readiness to take advantage of any opportunity for action, which should be presented. No favorable occasion offering, it was settled in the trenches in front of the city, remaining in comparative quiet until the beginning of November, when it moved again to Deep Bottom, and was again warmly engaged, the regiment sustaining severe losses, especially in officers.
Soon after its return, the corps moved to the left of the Union lines, and became heavily engaged near Hatcher's Run. The regiment now returned to the front line before the city, and with the Ninety-ninth, garrisoned Fort Hell during a considerable part of the ensuing winter. In December, it joined with the Fifth Corps in a descent upon the Richmond and Danville Railroad, and upon its return, resumed its place at the front, being occasionally called out for expeditions upon various parts of the line.
The Spring campaign, the last of the war, opened on the 25th of March, the rebel leader taking the initiative in his attack upon Fort Steadman. This was seized by Grant as the occasion for opening along the whole line. In the operations of the regiment on this day, Captain William Stewart was killed, and Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton, who had commanded the regiment since the severe wounding of Colonel Lewis, was himself severely wounded. The command now devolved on Major Frank B. Stewart, subsequently commissioned Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel.
On the morning of the 29th, the regiment left camp, now for the final struggle, and crossing Hatcher's Run, marched in the direction of Dinwiddie Court House, at evening putting up works just in the rear of some recently abandoned by the enemy. On the 2d of April, it marched towards Petersburg, finding his works all abandoned, except those in the immediate vicinity of the city, where some skirmishing ensued. During the night, he evacuated these also. Moving on in pursuit, long columns of prisoners were met, and captive trains.
On the morning of the 6th, the brigade to which the regiment was attached, was thrown forward upon the skirmish line, and soon struck the enemy, in the neighborhood of Amelia Springs, where, posted upon the heights to the west, he made a stubborn stand. The regiment sustained severe loss in killed and wounded; but finally, after hard fighting, his lines were broken and driven, his artillery captured, and towards evening, he was fleeing in complete rout-the road being strewn with wagons, tents, ammunition, and camp utensils. On the 7th, the pursuit was continued, the corps passing High Bridge, and reaching Farmville at evening, where another slight encounter took place, the regiment not coming into action.
On the 9th, the corps arrived at Clover Hill, where, at two in the afternoon, the news of the surrender of the rebel army was announced, amidst the wildest demonstrations of delight. Immediately taking up the homeward march, the regiment passed Burkesville and Richmond, and on the 15th of May, arrived in front of Washington, where, on the 28th of June, it was mustered out of service.