Army of Tennessee

The joining of the Army of Kentucky with the Army of the Mississippi, on November 20, 1862, was the origin of the Army of Tennessee-the great Confederate army of the West. There were three Corps and a division of cavalry, with an effective total of forty-seven thousand. General Braxton Bragg was in command. This army fought the battle of Stone's River, went through the Tullahoma campaign, and fought the battle of Chickamauga, assisted by Longstreet's Corps from the Army of Northern Virginia. It was driven from Chattanooga in November, 1863, by Grant's forces. After the battle of Chickamauga, the corps were reorganized several times. Bragg was removed from the command on December 2, 1863, and until General Johnston assumed it, on December 27th, both Hardee and Polk were in temporary command. Polk was sent to the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana before the end of December. The army spent the winter around Dalton, Georgia, and faced Sherman's advance in May, 1864, in two infantry and one cavalry corps. Polk brought back his divisions, which he called the Army of Mississippi, and these forces were consolidated with the Army of Tennessee on July 26th, after Polk had been killed. On July 18th, Johnston was replaced by General John B. Hood. After the capture of Atlanta, the army returned to Tennessee, and, failing to cut off Major-General Schofield's command at Franklin, was routed by Major-General Thomas at Nashville (December 15-16, 1864). In February, 1865, General Johnston was again placed in command of the Army of Tennessee, as well as the troops in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The army had greatly dwindled. Lieutenant-General A. P. Stewart was at the actual head of the Army of Tennessee after March 16th, and Johns-ton's enlarged command included troops from the far South under Hardee, which, in February, had been organized in a corps, and those in North Carolina under Bragg. The aggregate present of the old Army of Tennessee was about twenty thousand. The army surrendered to Sherman in North Carolina, April 26,1865.

        General Braxton Bragg (U. S. M. A. 1837) was born in Warren County, North Carolina, March 22, 1817, and served in the Seminole and Mexican wars. He resigned from the army in 1859, and became an extensive planter in Louisiana. On the secession of Louisiana, he was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate provisional army, and was the first commander of the military forces of Louisiana. After being appointed major-general in September, he took command of the forces in Alabama and West Florida from October, 1861, to February, 1862. He commanded the right wing of the Army of the Mississippi at Shiloh, and was made general after the death of Albert Sidney Johnston. He surd as commander of the Army of the Mississippi (or Tennessee), and led it into Kentucky in September, 1862, and after his retreat therefrom, was defeated by Rosecrans at Stone's River (January, 1863). He in turn defeated Rosecrans at Chickamauga, but was driven from Chattanooga by Grant in November, 1863. Bragg was now relieved of the Army of Tennessee, and, later, was given control of the Confederate army's military operations at Richmond. As commander of the Department of North Carolina, he failed in attempts to check Sherman and prevent the fall of Wilmington. After February, 1865, he cooperated with Johnston and surrendered with the latter. Later on, he was state engineer of Alabama, and died in Galveston, Texas, September 27, 1876.

        General John Bell Hood (U. S. M. A. 1853) was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, June 1, 1831, and fought against the Comanche Indians in Texas. He resigned from the army in April, 1861, to enter the Confederate service. After serving as captain in the cavalry and colonel of a Texas regiment, he received the appointment of brigadier-general in March, 1862. He was made major-general in October, 1862, after taking a conspicuous part in the Virginia campaigns. At Gettysburg, he commanded the largest division in Longstreet's Corps. In September, he went to Tennessee with Longstreet's Corps, which he commanded at Chickamauga, where he lost a leg. After the battle, he was given the rank of lieutenant-general, and at the head of the Second Corps in the Army of Tennessee, took part in the Atlanta campaign from May to July 18, 1864, when he succeeded Johnston in the command of the army with the temporary rank of general. He lost Atlanta, and, returning to Tennessee, was driven into Alabama by Major-General Thomas in the middle of December. In January, 1865, he was relieved of his command and was ordered to Richmond. After the war, he went to New Orleans, where he died, August 30, 1879.

First Corps- Army of the Mississippi and of Tennessee

        Major-General Leonidas Polk commanded from June, 1861, to March, 1862, the First Division in the Western Department (No. 2), the troops of which were scattered along the Mississippi from Columbus, Kentucky, to Memphis, and in the interior of Tennessee and Mississippi. It numbered about twenty-five thousand men. On the organization of the Army of the Mississippi in March, 1862, this division was called the First Grand Division, and after the consolidation with the Central Army of Kentucky, on March 29th, the First Corps, Army of the Mississippi. On August 15th, Polk's Corps was reorganized as the Right Wing in ten divisions, with over fifteen thousand present for duty. In the Army of Tennessee, the Right Wing became the First, or Polk's Corps. After the battle of Chickamauga, Polk was relieved of the command, and both corps of the army underwent reorganization. The leading corps was thereafter known as Hardee's, or Cheatham's Corps, from the names of its commanders.

        Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk (U. S. M. A. 1827) was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 10, 1806. He left the army for the church, and eventually became the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana, in 1841. In 1861, he entered the Confederate army and was made major-general in June. He was assigned to the command of the Western Department (No. 2) ; and in September he was replaced by General A. S. Johnston and given the First Division, Army of the Mississippi, with which he won the battle of Belmont in November. He led the First Corps at Shiloh, and later had temporary command of the army itself. In October, 1862, he was given the rank of lieutenant-general, and accompanied the Western Confederate army until after Chickamauga, where he commanded the Right Wing when he was temporarily suspended, but the charge of delay on his part was dismissed by President Davis. In the winter of 1868-64, he was in command of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, and brought his forces, which he called the Army of Mississippi, to Georgia in May, 1864, to assist Johnston in opposing Sherman's advance to Atlanta. On Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Georgia, he was killed by a cannon-ball, June 14,1864.

        Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham was born in Nashville, Tennessee, October 20, 1820. He entered the Mexican War, rising to the rank of colonel after distinguished service at Monterey and elsewhere. At the close of this war he became major-general of the Tennessee militia, and when the Civil War broke out he attached himself to the Confederate cause and organized the entire supply department for the Western troops. As brigadier-general, he served under Polk at Belmont, and had a division of the First Corps, Army of the Mississippi, at Shiloh, and was commander of the Right Wing of the same army during Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in 1862. He led his division at Stone's River, through the Tullahoma campaign, and at Chickamauga, and after that battle was head of Cheatham's Corps, an organization formed upon the departure of Polk from the army, and of which Hardee shortly afterward took command. In the Atlanta campaign he led a division in Hardee's Corps, and assumed command of the corps, which later was known as Cheatham's Corps, after the departure of Hardee for Savannah in October, 1864, with which he continued until the surrender at Durham Station. After the war he became a farmer in Tennessee, and was appointed postmaster of Nashville in 1885. He died there September 4, 1886.

        Major-General Patrick Romayne Cleburne was born in County Cork, Ireland, March 17, 1828. He ran away from Trinity College, Dublin, and enlisted in the Forty-first Foot. In 1855 he came to America, settling in Helena, Arkansas, where he practiced law until the opening of the war. He entered the Confederate service as private, and rose to the rank of major-general, in 1862. He planned the capture of the United States arsenal in Arkansas, March, 1861. He was colonel of an Arkansas regiment, and at Shiloh, as brigadier-general, he commanded a brigade in the Third Corps, Army of the Mississippi. He was wounded at Perryville. At Murfreesboro an commanded a division, and his troops formed the rear guard at Missionary Ridge. For his defense of Ringgold Gap, in the Atlanta campaign, he received the thanks of the Confederate Congress. Cleburne covered Hood's retreat at Jonesboro, and had temporary command of Hardee's Corps. He continued to hold his division in Cheatham's Corps, and at the battle of Franklin was killed, November 30, 1864. A brilliant charge at Chickamauga earned him the title of " Stonewall of the West," and it was he who initiated the Order of the Southern Cross and was among the first to urge the advantages to the Confederates of colored troops.

Second Corps- Army of the Mississippi and of Tennessee

        Major-General Braxton Bragg was given command of the Second Corps of the Army of the Mississippi on its organization, March 29, 1862. There were ten divisions, composed chiefly of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana troops. In July, Major-General Samuel Jones had command, and on August 15th, when General Bragg resumed command of the whole army, his former corps passed to the control of Major-General Hardee. There was an aggregate present of about sixteen thousand men. On November 7th, the Left Wing, in an organization that had a short existence after August 15th, again became the Second (or Hardee's) Corps. In July, 1863, Lieutenant-General Hardee was relieved by Lieutenant-General D. H. Hill, who commanded at Chickamauga, and the later commanders were Major-Generals J. C. Breckinridge, T. C. Hindman, Lieutenant-General J. B. Hood, Major-General C. L. Stevenson and Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee. After 1864, the corps was known as Hood's, or Lee's Corps, Hardee having assumed command of the other corps.

        Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee (U. S. M. A.. 1838) was born in Savannah, Georgia, October 10, 1815, and served in the Seminole and Mexican wars. He resigned his commission of lieutenant-colonel in January, 1861, to join the Confederate forces, in which he was appointed a brigadier-general in June. He was given command of Fort ay, in March, and later, as major-general, was transferred to the Central Army of Kentucky, of which he had command from December, 1861, to February, 1862. He was given the Second Corps in the Army of the Mississippi and led the advance at Shiloh. He took part with this army as corps or wing commander in Bragg's invasion of Kentucky, at Stone's River, and at Chattanooga, having been made lieutenant-general in October, 1862. In the summer of 1863 he had charge of the defenses of Mississippi and Alabama. He had temporary command of the Army of Tennessee after Bragg was removed in December, 1863. He had a corps during the Atlanta campaign, and in October, 1864, he was placed in command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. He was unable to prevent the capture of Savannah, and, in February, 1865, joined Johnston, serving in the Army of Tennessee, at the head of a corps formed from the troops in his department, until its surrender. After the war, he lived at Selma, Alabama, and died at Wytheville, Virginia, November 6, 1873.

        Lieutenant-General Daniel Harvey Hill (U. S. M. A. 1842) was born at Hill's Iron Works, York District, South Carolina, July 12, 1821. He resigned from the army after the Mexican War, in which he had received the brevet of major, and was engaged in teaching until he entered the Confederate army, in 1861. As colonel of the First North Carolina Infantry, he showed marked talent at Big Bethel, June 10th, and was made brigadier-general the following month. As major-general, he had a division and later a command, or corps, in the Army of Northern Virginia, and fought through the Peninsula campaign. He was assigned to the Department of North Carolina in July, but fought with his division at South Mountain, where he held the Federal forces in check, and at Antietam. In July, 1863, he was made lieutenant-general, and replaced Lieutenant-General Hardee in command of the Second Corps, Army of Tennessee, which he led at Chickamauga, and of which he was relieved in November. With the rank of major-general, he took command of a division in Lee's Corps, Army of Tennessee, in March, 1865, and at the battle of Bentonville he led the corps itself. After the war, he became an editor, and from 1877 to 1884 was president of the Arkansas Industrial University. He died at Charlotte, North Carolina, September 25, 1889.

        Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson (U. S. M. A. 1838) was born near Fredericksburg, Virginia, September 21, 1817. He was dismissed from the army in June, 1861, having entered the Confederate service as lieutenant-colonel. He did duty at Cumberland Gap, from which he drove Brigadier-General G. W. Morgan away, and commanded a division in the Army of Tennessee. He rose to the rank of major-general in October, 1862. His division was with Pemberton's forces in the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, December 26, 1862. He fought at Chickamauga and in the Atlanta campaign onward with the Army of Tennessee, having on July, 1864, temporary command of Hood's Corps, before the appointment of Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee. He also assumed command of Lee's Corps, when the latter was wounded after the battle of Nashville, until the army had crossed the Tennessee. He died August 15, 1888.

        Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman was born in Tennessee, November, 1818. He became a lawyer and served in Congress. He fought in the Mexican War, and in 1860 was a member of the Charleston Convention. He went to the Civil War as colonel of an Arkansas regiment, and served in the armies of the West and of the Mississippi. For his conduct at Shiloh he was made major-general. He was, at different times, division commander in the Army of Tennessee, and a temporary commander of the Second Corps, and was also at the head of the Trans-Mississippi District and that of Arkansas. He was defeated at Prairie Grove and at Newtonia. After the war, he went to Mexico, but returned to Arkansas and was murdered by one of his former soldiers at Helena, September 28,1868.

        Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee (U. S. M. A. 1854) was born in Charleston, South Carolina, September 22, 1833. He resigned from the army in February, 1861, to enter the Confederate service as captain in the artillery, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-general June, 1864. He was one of the three men who called on Major Anderson, April 12, 1861, and demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter. He had a battalion in the Washington Artillery, and was prominent at Second Bull Run and at Antietam. He was then sent to the West and commanded a division at the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, December 27, 1862, driving back the Federal troops with great slaughter. He was among those who surrendered at Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, and in August was put at the head of the cavalry in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, and fought at Tupelo and other places. In May, 1864, he succeeded Lieutenant-General Polk at the head of this department, remaining there until July, when he was assigned to the command of Hood's Corps, Army of Tennessee, General Hood having been placed at the head of the whole army. Henceforth it was known as Lee's Corps. He was wounded December 17, 1864, while protecting the rear of the army in the retreat from Nashville. After the war he became a planter in Mississippi ; a member of the State legislature; and in 1880 he became president of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. He was also at the head of the Vicksburg National Park, and was commander-in-chief of the United Confederate Veterans, after the death of Lieutenant-General John B. Gordon, in 1904. He died at Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 28, 1908.


Wheeler's Cavalry Corps- Army of Tennessee

        On January 22, 1863, Major-General Joseph Wheeler was assigned to command all the cavalry in Middle Tennessee. On March 16th, the cavalry divisions in the Army of Tennessee were designated as corps, and were given the names of their respective commanders. Wheeler and Van Dorn. The corps were organized into divisions and brigades, and Wheeler's Corps, sometimes known as the Second Corps, had an aggregate present of nearly twelve thousand. It displayed great activity in Tennessee, making numerous raids and guarding the flanks of the army. After the battle of Chickamauga, it made a famous raid on Rosecrans' communications, October, 1863. It also operated on the flanks of the army during the Atlanta and other campaigns until the close of the war.

        Lieutenant-General Joseph Wheeler (U. S. M. A. 1859) was born in Augusta, Georgia, September 10, 1836, and entered the mounted infantry, resigning, in 1861, to join the Confederate army, in which he reached the rank of major-general (January, 1863), and commander of the Second Cavalry Corps, Army of Tennessee. He was conspicuous as a raider, and was constantly employed in guarding the flanks of the army, cutting the Federal communications, covering retreats, and obtaining information for the army commanders. He was appointed lieutenant-general, February 28, 1865. After the war, he was a member of Congress from 1881 to 1899. He was commissioned major-general of volunteers in 1898, and went to the Spanish War, commanding the troops at Las Guasimas, and was senior field-officer at the battle of San Juan Hill. He was senior member of the commission which negotiated the surrender of Santiago. He served with the American troops during the insurrection in the Philippines from August, 1899, to January 24, 1900, and on June 13, 1900, was appointed brigadier-general of the United States army, being retired the following September. He died in Brooklyn, New York, January 25, 1906. General Wheeler made a unique reputation for himself as a cavalry leader, and in the Spanish war his services won universal acknowledgment as typical of the complete reunion of the North and South.

Van Dorn's Cavalry Corps- Army of Tennessee

On March 16, 1863, Major-General Van Dorn's Cavalry Division in the Army of Tennessee was called Van Dorn's, or the First Cavalry Corps. It had an average aggregate present of about eight thousand, and was a valuable adjunct to General Bragg's army.

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